Bremen Sailors and the German Merchant Marines, North German Lloyd


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North German Lloyd, Norddeutsche Lloyd (NDL) Bremen/Bremerhaven, Germany

The North German Lloyd Company, Norddeutsche Lloyd, (NDL) of Bremen was founded in 1857 and became one of the leading shipping companies in Europe. This page will take a look at the North German Lloyd, some of its ships, and some of its seamen in the period between the founding of the company and the 1870s.

Some of my relatives (particularly the Petermanns) sailed out of Bremen before the North German Lloyd was formed. Information on the ships they sailed on can be found under the individuals and their specific experiences at sea. See bottom of the page.

Bremen/Bremerhaven

Bremen, with its port at Bremerhaven, was one of the major shipping centers in Europe in the mid to late 1800s, a period of major German immigration to the United States.

Thousands of young men from northern Germany went to sea with the Bremen ships. Among them were:

  1. My great grandfather, J. Berend Petermann born 1843 in Ganderkesee, son of Johann Christopher Petermann and Gesche Margarethe Engelbart, spent 14 years at sea and traveled all over the world. He married in Germany and immigrated to the United States where he settled in Hoboken, New Jersey.
    Several other Petermanns born in Ganderkesee spent time at sea:
    1. Joh Hem Petermann born 180(?)[4] Ganderkere, residence, Elmeloh enlisted 17 Okt 1837 (17 Oct 1837), Ship Hercules, Bremen to the Westindische (West Indies) Archive Name: Bremen Staatsarchiv. Crew lists. Not listed Sailors Registery. Before the North German LLoyd was formed.
    2. Johann Heinrich Petermann, born c 1806, Ganderkersee, residence Elmeloh. He was at sea from 1832 to 1842, before the formation of the North German Lloyd lines.
    3. Friedr Petermann born 1810 Ganderkesee, Residence Ganderkesee. Enlisted 27 Okt 1845 (27 Oct 1845), Ship Ann Bremen to Baltimore, Maryland Archive Name: Bremen Staatsarchiv Archive Collection: 4,24-E.7 Musterungslisten der Schiffe, gefuhrt vom Bremer Wasserschout, 1837 Juli- 1873 Crew Lists. Pre North German Lloyd.
    4. Johann Berend Petermann, born 1812, Ganderkesee, residence Landwehr. He was at sea from 1832 to 1842, before the formation of the North German Lloyd. I am not sure exactly who he was but he was the witness to the baptism of Johann Hirnrich Petermnn born 1840.
    5. Friedrich Petermann, born circa 1820 Ganderkesee was a ship's cook. He made multiple sailings between 1839 to 1871. He signed up for over 43 tours - many to the USA: Baltimore, Charlestown, Galveston, New Orleans and New York. He was on the same ship as Johann Heinrich (born 1806) in 1839. He was also on the same ship as Berend (born 1843) and Johann Heinrich (born 1852) in May 1870 (the Bark Texas to the USA).
    6. Bernh Petermann, born circa 1833, Ganderkesee, residence Ganderkesee made one tour in 1859
    7. Johann Heinrich Petermann, born 1840 Ganderkesee, the brother of J. Berend Petermann did 15 tours between 1858 and 1871. The vessels he sailed on were not North German Lloyd, but I have not yet found who they belonged to.
    8. Joh Hinr Petermann 1852, Ganderkesee, residence Ganderkesee made 5 tours between 1864 and 1870. Again the ships were not part of the North German Lloyd fleet.
    9. Johann Heinrich Englbert (Engelbart) born 1817 Ganderkesee served on the Hudson to Greenland in the winters between 1865 and 1871.
    10. Johann Heinrich Englebart born 1847 Ganderkesee, son of Johann Heinrich born 1817, served on six tours between 1862 and 1871.
  2. My husband's great grandfather, Henry Blanck, was born in Lehe (a suburb of Bremerhaven) in 1849. He spent 3 years with the North German Lloyd Steamship Company between 1868 and 1870 - traveling between Bremen and New York with trips to Havana, Cuba and New Orleans. He immigrated to Hoboken, New Jersey in 1871 by deserting ship on his last voyage.
    1. His brother, Hermann Blanck, spent two years with the North German Lloyd. He made at least three voyages with Henry Blanck. He then disappears from the records.
    2. Henry Blanck's future brother-in-laws, Fredrich Erxmeyer served on the North German Lloyd and deserted in Hoboken.
    3. Henrich Erxmeyer, brother of Freidich, also served on the North German Lloyd and deserted in Hoboken.
    4. Johann Lehmann served with the North German LLoyd. and deserted in Hoboken.
    5. Hienrich Reddehase, another brother-in-law of Freidrich Erxmeyer, deserted ship in New York.
    6. Johann William Lange born Rustorf 1845 married Frederick Erxmeyer's wife's sister, Catherine Reddehase. J. Wilhelm Lange made 7 tours with the North German Lloyd between 1868 and 1872 when he deserted ship in New York.

The piers of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company in New York Harbor were in Hoboken, New Jersey. While the port was listed as "New York" the ships actually docked in Hoboken, New Jersey.

Merchant Marine Tour of Duty

Ancestry.com has:

  1. Bremen, Germany Ships Crew Lists, 1815-1917, Crew Lists 221,495
  2. Bremen, Germany Sailors Registry, 1824-1917, Crew Lists 49,777

  3. Bremen, German Deaths of Sailors and Ship Passengers, 1834-1875, Crew Lists 4,215

  4. Bremen, German Desertions of Sailors, 1855-1874

When a sailor signed up for a tour of duty it does not appear that he signed up for a specific length of time. The length of service was clearly determined at the end of the enlistment as indicated by the notations of months and days entereed in the column titled "entlassen" [release] and by the desertion date of many a sailor.

Most voyages list a time of service in months and days. I am assuming that a sailor stayed on the ship in question for the period of time listed. For instance Henry Blanck signed up on the NEW YORK in April 1870. The length of service is listed as 4 months and 9 days. The NEW YORK left Bremen on or about April 6, 1870. She made two crossing between Europe and New York returning to Bremen at the end of July 1870. I assume that Henry Blanck was aboard for both of those round trips.

The crew lists appear to indicate who signed up at a certain date but does not mean that a particular list includes the whole crew. This is illustrated in two ways:

  1. The size of certain crew lists. For example the Crew list of April 29, 1869 on the Steamship NEW YORK was only 33. Too small for the crew needed to man this ship.

  2. Heinrich Blank enlisted April 29, 1869 on the steamship NEW YORK. He spent over a year on this ship as indicated by the amount of time he served. Hermann Blank signed on the steamship NEW YORK in June 8 1869 and served for 3 months and 9 days. Both Henry and Hermann Blanck formed part of the crew between June 8, 1869 and September 1869. Yet they signed on at different times and left the crew at different dates.

The Palmer List of Merchant Vessels states that the Steamship MAIN had "accommodation for 70 passengers in 1st class, 100 in 2nd class, and 600 in steerage; crew of 105." 52 crew members enlisted on November 4, 1870. I am assuming that another 52 (more or less) had signed up at a earlier date and had remained on board as crew.

There seems to have been some role over effect. The number of crew remaining more or less constant but the actual crew members changing over time.

Desertion

"Desertion" was fairly common. I do not know if there were penalties involved. Many of the men who "deserted" (including my ancestor, Berend Petermann) returned to the German merchant crews and sailed again at a latter date. It would appear that many "missed" rather than deserted. On the other hand, some men probably did enlist in Bremen with the intention of deserting in New York (or some other port).

The Bremen, German Desertion of Sailors 1855-1874 records list 142 desertions for men from Lehe to New York City including Henry Blanck. There were others deserting in other cities in the United States.

Henry Blanck's future brothers-in-laws, Henry and Fredrick Erxmeyer (in 1871) and Johann Lehman (in 1873), also deserted ship. Frederich Erxmeyers bother-in-law, Heinrich Reddehase deserted in 1873. My great grandfather, Johann Berend Petermann, deserted in 1864. However, Berend went back to German, served again as a merchant sailor, and immigrated to the US at a later date. According to Bremen, German Desertion 1855-1874 6,374 sailors deserted ship between 1855 and 1874 in the Port of New York. There were 136 to Hoboken under a separate listing. This is taking into consideration only one port of departure from Europe and only one port in the States.

Although they lie alongside the wharves of the great cotton ports for weeks, desertions are of rare occurrence. I have often marvelled at this, as their wages are lower than the English, and the crimps are constantly tempting them with highly remunerative offers. It is true the Germans have a consular treaty (we have not), which gives their consuls the power to imprison a deserter. Should they hold any property at home it becomes forfeited to the Crown; and as every man is registered, this is not a dead letter.

Fraser's Magazine, 1874


The North German Lloyd (Norddeutscher Lloyd) Bremen/Bremerhaven

The transatlantic steamer line North German Lloyd (Norddeutscher Lloyd) of Bremen was founded in 1857 and consisted of three steamers running to England. Four screw steamers were subsequently purchased to make the transatlantic run between Bremen and New York. The first of these screw steamers made her maiden voyage in June 1858. Initially the main business of the North German Lloyd was the transportation of emigrants from Germany to the United States. However, the returning cargo was more uncertain. As a consequence they started lines to The West Indies and South America. In addition to the press of emigration other changes had occurred after 1870 with encouraged an increase in shipping. These included the development of steam ships, commercial and navigational treaties, the reduction in pirates, and the opening of East Asia.

In 1870 the Bremen merchant marine was made up of 27 steamers. By 1898 it was made up of 259 steamers. in 1872 the Norddeutscher-Lloyd started two weekly steamers from Bremen to New York, and a weekly steamer to Baltimore, and also extended its connections with South America.

As is so often the case, the success of this great company is said to be mainly due to one man, the late Mr. H. H. Meier, who for many years was its life and soul. He succeeded in amalgamating the various steamship companies then existing and forming out of them this company, which has gradually become one of the greatest steamship companies in the world. In June, 1858, the New York line was opened via Southampton, with the screw steamship Bremen (318 x 40 x 26), 2674 tons, followed by the New York, Hudson and Weser, all built by Caird & Co., of Greenock. These boats were so satisfactory that for a great many years they confined themselves to this yard. In all, Caird & Co. are said to have built some forty ships for the company. In 1862 and 1863 the Hansa and America, followed by the Hermann, Deutchland, and Union, were added to the line, all built by Caird & Co. In 1866 it became necessary to establish a weekly line to New York, and the following year the fleet numbered fourteen steamers, of which eight were in the New York trade and six in the English. In 1869 the company extended their operations to New Orleans, and in 1870 to the West Indies; in 1875, to Brazil and the River Plate. Most of their boats have been called after the principal rivers of Germany. A printed return shows that in 1874 the average weekly passages westward from Southampton of the company's boats, Donau, Moselle, Hermann, Hansa, Weser, Rhein, Main, America, Oder, Neckar, Deutchland, Hohcnstauffen and Hohenzollem, was 11 days 13 hours, the Main making the quickest in 9 days 14 hours 20 minutes. Eastward, the average for the same year was only 10 days 8 hours 58 minutes, the Moselle making the quickest in 9 days 8 hours and 50 minutes.

The history of North Atlantic steam navigation: with some account of early ... By Henry Fry, 1896

Most German ships were made up of entirely German crews with an occasional Scandinavian or Dutchman. Most of the German seamen came from the north near the coast and spoke a North German dialect.

The German seaman had a reputation as being well disciplined, hard working, and sober.

Nor does the German seaman disdain a small refreshment, but his self-respect, and higher degree of cultivation, keep him from degrading himself in a similar manner, although of course there are exceptions. He has had his pleasure, and has visited the neighbourhood and everything worth seeing, so he is content, and spends the rest of his money in keepsakes, and curiosities for his relations; he is a German and thinks always of the dear ones at home.

United Service Magizine, 1881

German Merchant ships were bound to transport home any German seaman found in need in a foreign country.


The North German Lloyd Fleet in 1868

According to Norway Heritage the North German Lloyd Fleet in 1868 included:

S/S America 1862
S/S Baltimore 1868
S/S Berlin 1867
S/S Bremen (1) 1858
S/S Deutschland 1866
S/S Hansa (1) 1861
S/S Hermann 1865
S/S Main (1) 1868
S/S New York 1858
S/S Rhein (1) 1868
S/S Union 1866
S/S Weser (2) 1867

In 1868 North German Lloyd ships were carrying passengers, mail, money and cargo.

American Mails. - Southampton Sept. 15. - The North German Lloyd screw steamship Deutschland, Captain H. Wessels, arrived this morning, with mails of the 3rd inst., from New York, 110 passengers, $104 907 in specie for England, and 1,000 tons of cargo for Bremen. Light easterly winds, with heavy swell, and generally fine weather, were experienced on the passage. On the 12th, at 6 p.m., in lat. 49 41 N, long. 23 43 W., the Deutschland spoke the English bark Egmont. The North German Lloyd screw steamship Union, Captain H. J. von Sauten, sailed hence this afternoon for New York, with English, French, and German mails, 158 cabin passengers, jewelry from Havre value 125,000f., and a full cargo of general merchandize. The new steamer Rhein, belonging to the same company, left Greenock for Bremen on Sunday last, and will sail from Southampton on the 6th proximo, on her first voyage to New York.

The Latter-Day Saints' millennial star, Volume 30,1868


The North German Lloyd Fleet in 1870

A 1870 North German Lloyd ad in the Aschaffenburger Zeitung (By Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)

In July and August 1870 the following ships were advertised as running from Bremen via Southampton to New York: Rhine, Donau, Deutschland, Main, Weser.

In July and August 1870 the following ships were advertised as running from Bremen via Havre to to New York: Hansa, New York and Hermann.

The Bremen was going directly from Bremen to New York.

The Ohio, Berlin and Baltimore were going Bremen via Southampton to Baltimore.

The Hanover, Bremen, the Frankfurt and the Koln were running from Bremen via Harve and Havana to New Orleans.

The Konig Wilhelm I, the Kronprinz Fr. Wilhelm and the Graf Bismarck went from Bremen via Southampton to the West Indies: Colon, Savanilla, Curacao, La Guayra, Porto Cabello with connection via Panama to the West Coast ports of America and on to China and Japan.


The North German Lloyd Fleet in 1873

This 1873 ad for the North German Lloyd shipping line listed the ships and their destinations.

The North German Lloyd Fleet in 1879

In 1879 the North German Lloyd advertised 8 steamships traveling between New York and Bremen every Saturday: the Neckar, the Oder, the Mosel, the Rhein, the Main, the Donau, the Weser and the America.

The SS Oder from Across the Atlantic from New York to Southampton, Havre, and Bremen By Norddeutscher Lloyd, 1879


The Ships They Sailed On

My ancestors and their relatives were Merchant Seamen who sailed out of Bremen between the 1830s and the early 1870s. Consequently my focus is on the Bremen ships of that period: specifically the ships they actually served on.


The AMERICA 1863-1894

The AMERICA was on the Bremen to New York Route from 1863 to 1894.

J. Berend Peterman was on the AMERICA from September 30, 1872 to about May 12, 1873. See Berend Petermann at Sea for details of crossings for this ship.

Herman Blanck served on the AMERICA from November 9 1870 to unknown. See Hermann Blank At Sea

The German Lloyds new steamship AMERICA sailed from Southampton on the 27th of May, 1863 arrived June 7, 1863.

AMERICA / ORAZIO 1862 The AMERICA was a 2752 gross ton ship, length 318ft x beam 40ft, clipper bows, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sails), iron hull, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Accommodation for 76-1st, 107-2nd and 480-steerage class passengers. Built by Caird & Co, Greenock, she was launched for North German Lloyd, Bremen in Nov.1862. Her maiden voyage started on 25th May 1863 when she left Bremen for Southampton and New York. In 1871 she was fitted with new engines and on 27th Jan.1894 commenced her last round voyage from Bremen to New York and Baltimore. Sold to Italy in 1894, she was renamed ORAZIO and was scrapped the following year. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.545]

The ship List

S. S. America 1863 North German Lloyd, image from Peabody Museum of Salem

To see an additional image of the AMERICA go to The Palmer List of Merchant Vessels

1873: Arrived Steam-ship America (Ger.), Bussins, Bremen March 13, Southampton 16th with mdse and 304 passengers to Oelirich & co, March 29, 1873 (NYT)


The BALTIMORE 1868-1894

Hermann Blank served on the BALTIMORE from January 25, to May 1869. See Hermann Blank At Sea

Sailings between January 1869 and May 1869 per Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen (European's list the day then the month)

  1. 01.02.1869, Baltimore, Nordd. Lloyd, from Bremen, Vöckler, W. to Baltimore, 59 passengers
  2. 07.04.1869 Baltimore Nordd. Lloyd, from Bremen Vöckler, W. to Baltimore, 711 passengers
The Baltimore was listed BELOW from Baltimore 16th April 1869, Captain Voeckler. (New York Harold)

Statistics on the Baltimore:

BALTIMORE 1868 The BALTIMORE was built in 1868 by Caird & Co, Greenock for North German Lloyd of Bremen. She was a 2,321 gross ton ship, length 285ft x beam 39ft, clipper stem, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail),iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 84-1st and 600-3rd class. Launched on 3/8/1867, she left Bremen on her maiden voyage to Southampton and Baltimore on 1/3/1868. On the night of 22-23/5/1872 she was in collision off Hastings with the Spanish vessel LORENZO SEMPRUN, was beached, and towed to Southampton for repairs. In 1881 her engines were compounded by AG Weser, Bremen, and on 10/10/1883 she commenced her last Bremen - Baltimore crossing. She was subsequently used for the Bremen - S.America service. Her final voyage started on 30/12/1893 and the following year she was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.545-6]

The ship List

Building of the Baltimore
The new screw steamship Baltimore, 2200 tons, built by Messrs. Caird and Co., for the North German Lloyd's, for their new line of Bremen and Baltimore traders, which has been lying over at Gareloch for the last two months, was towed back to the Victoria Harbour, Greenock, a few days ago. Her shaft, which has been made in Germany, having arrived, she will now be completed.

Engineering, 1867

The Initiation of the Route between Baltimore and Bremen

On the 23d of March, 1869, the steamship Baltimore, the pioneer vessel of the North German Lloyd line between Baltimore and Bremen, arrived in the harbor, and four days later the commercial interests, the civic authorities, and the population in general, celebrated the establishment of regular steam communication between Baltimore and Europe with an elaborate demonstration of their gratification.

Baltimore: its history and its people, Volume 1 By Lewis Historical Publishing Co, 1912

Wreck of the BALTIMORE off Hastings 1872.
The North German Lloyd's steamship Baltimore, which arrived at Southampton on the 22d ult. from Baltimore for Bremen, and subsequently sailed for her destination, on the following night came in collision, off Hastings, with the Spanish steamship Lorenzo Semprum. The Baltimore had a large hole stove in her hull, and the fires were soon extinguished, not however before the steamer had been run aground. The crew and passengers were all landed in safety.

The Friend, 1872

The Illustrated London News, Saturday June 1, 1872, Collection Maggie Land Blanck, 2012

THE NORTH GERMAN LLOYD'S STEAM-SHIP BALTIMORE AGROUND AT HASTINGS

The steam-ship Baltimore trading between Bremen and Baltimore was hit by the Spanish steamer Lorenzo Semprun in the Channel near Hastings about midnight May 22, 1872. She had departed Baltimore on May 9th. Captain Deetjan of the Baltimore, having determined that there was a large hole in the starboard bow, turned her towards shore "guided by the lamplights on the Marine Parade at Hastings". Rockets were fired which were seen by the coastguard who immediately came to the rescue. Taking on water quickly she ran aground about a third mile from the Marine Parade, her head having gradually sank. There were 130 passengers and 80 seamen on board. All were safely brought to shore. All of the luggage was salvaged. The forward compartment was filled with water. The ship lay in about 8 feet of water at low tide and many people went out to the Government House coastguard station to take a look. The Baltimore was towed to Southampton for repairs.

She had been on her way from America to Bremen "Laden with tobacco, molasses and lard". On setting sail from Baltimore her captain was named Fisher. It appears he died at sea.

"Captain Fisher had died on the voyage, and Mr. Deetjan was in command. She had put in at Southampton and landed her English passengers, on the Wednesday, leaving Southampton at four o'clock that afternoon. The Spanish steamer, on her way from Aalsund to Santander with a cargo of fish, received great damage from the collision, but was enabled to reach Southampton on the the Thursday afternoon."

The BREMEN 1858-1874

Melusine Erxmeyer and her one month old infant (born at sea) arrived in Hoboken on the Bremen on December 26, 1872. See Melosine Erxmeyer Blanck

Arrived

Steamship Bremen, (Ger.) Ladewigs, Bremen. Dec. 7, and Southampton 10th, with mdse. and passengers to Oelriche & Co.

New York Times, December 26, 1872

John Lehman, who would later marry Melusine's sister, Julia, was a steward on the BREMEN from August 1872 until he deserted ship in New York in February 1873. See Julia Erxmeyer Lehmann Tietjen

Sailings between August 1872 and February 1873 per Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen (European's list the day then the month)

  1. 20.08.1872, Bremen, Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen, Captain Gardewigs, New York 459 passengers
  2. 03.09.1872, Bremen, C.L. Brauer & Sohn Captain Hellmers, Galveston 64 passengers
  3. 16.10.1872, Bremen, Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Captain Ladewigs, New York 502 passengers
  4. 07.12.1872, Bremen, Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Captain Ladewigs, New York 269 passengers
  5. 25.01.1873 , Bremen, Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Captain Klugkist, New York 184 passengers

The Bremen was listed in violation of overcrowding laws on vessels arriving in the port of New York in April 1872. She was carrying 749 passengers - an excess of 150 passengers. (Senate 1873 Steerage Passengers on emigrant vessels). The Bremen arrived April 15, 1872 and according to the ship's manifest was listed with 25 cabin passengers and 817 steerage passengers.

The Bremen was the first of the North German Lloyd ships to make a transatlantic crossing between Bremerhaven and New York. She left Bremerhaven under the command of Captain Wessels late in the evening on June 19, 1858 with 1 first class cabin passenger, 21 second class cabin passengers and 96 steerage passengers. According to the Manifest she arrived in New York on July 6, 1858.

In 1858 three more steamships were added to the line: the Hudson, The Weser and the New York.

BREMEN 1858 The BREMEN of 1858 was a 2,674 gross ton ship, built by Caird & Co, Greenock, Scotland for Norddeutscher Lloyd of Bremen. Her details were - length 97,53m x beam 11,88m (320ft x 39ft), she had a clipper stem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 160-1st, 110-2nd and 400-3rd class passengers. Launched on 1st February 1858, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to New York on 19th June 1858. She continued on this service except for six months repair in 1860, when she fractured her propellor shaft. On 5th November 1873 she started her last voyage from Bremen to Southampton and New York, and in 1874 was sold to Edward Bates of Liverpool who had her engines removed and used her as a sailing vessel. On 16th October 1882 she was wrecked on the South Farralone Islands, California. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.544]

The ship List

Build by Caird & Co., Greenock, Scotland.

Tonnage: 2,551. Dimensions: 321' x 39'. Single-screw, 10 1/2 knots. Inverted engines. Three masts and one funnel. Iron hull. Clipper bow. Passengers: 150 cabin, 800 third. Note: Pineer steamship of the North German Lloyd. Maiden voyage: Bremen-New York, June 19, 1858. Made her last voyage for line in November 1873. Sold to British shipowners in 1874 and converted to sail. Wrecked of San Francisco in 1882. Running mates: New York (identical), Hudson and Weser.

From Passenger Ships of the World Past and Present by Eugene W. Smith, copy of ships information provided by The Steamship Historical Society of America.

From the collection of : Uhle, Steamship Historical Society of America Collection, Langsdale Library, University of Baltimore

For more images of the BREMEN go to Palmer List of Merchant Vessels


The DEUTSCHLAND 1866-1875

Frederick Erxmeyer served on the DEUTSCHLAND September and October 1868 and November to December 1868. See Freidrich Erxmeyer at Sea

Sailings between September and December 1868 per Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen (European's list the day then the month)

  1. 26.09.1868 Deutschland Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Wessels, H. New York 631
  2. 14.11.1868 Deutschland Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Wessels, H. New York 475

The DEUTSCHLAND

DEUTSCHLAND 1866 2,800 gross tons, length 325ft x beam 40ft, clipper bows, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots, accommodation for 60-1st, 120-2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. Launched 29th May 1866 by Caird & Co, Greenock for North German Lloyd, Bremen, she started her maiden voyage on 14th Oct.1866 when she left Bremen for Southampton and New York. On 6th Dec.1875 she was wrecked off Kentish Knock in the Thames Estuary with the loss of 157 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2,p.545 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

The ship List

Heritage ships www.heritage-ships.com

To see an additional image of the DEUTSCHLAND go to Palmer List of Merchant Vessels


The DONAU 1869-1889

The Erxmeyer brothers, Fredrick and Henry, and their brother-in-law, Johann Leham sailed on the Donau. Fred Erxmeyer was on the Donau from December 1868 to August 1, 1871. Henry Erxmeyer was on the Donau from April 1871 to August 1. 1871. Johann Lehman was on the Donau starting in July 1871. I do not know when he left this ship.

Fred Erxmeyer's wife, Charlotte Erxmeyer emigrated on the Donau in 1871 Charlotte Erxmeyer, age 25, traveling with Charlotte Erxmeyer, age 7 months, and Marie Erxmeyer, age 9 years arrived on September 4, 1871 aboard the S.S. Donau from Bremen to New York (Donau Ship Manifest) Sailings for the Donau were not listed in 1868 per Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen. Sailings from January 1869 to July 1871 were as follows. (European's list the day then the month).

  1. 16.01.1869 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst, G. New York 143
  2. 10.04.1869 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst, G. New York 707
  3. 29.05.1869 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst, G. New York 730
  4. 10.07.1869 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst, G. New York 477
  5. 28.08.1869 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst, G. New York 749
  6. 23.10.1869 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 732
  7. 29.01.1870 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst, G. New York 220
  8. 19.03.1870 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 643
  9. 30.04.1870 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 759
  10. 11.06.1870 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 479
  11. 22.10.1870 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 676
  12. 24.12.1870 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 95
  13. 04.03.1871 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 283
  14. 15.04.1871 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 730
  15. 27.05.1871 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 711
  16. 15.07.1871 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 714
  17. 26.08.1871 Donau Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ernst New York 791
The DONAU

DONAU (1) 1868 The DONAU was 2,896 gross tons, length 332ft x beam 40ft, clipper bows, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 13 knots, accommodation for 60-1st and 700-3rd class passengers. Built by Caird & Co, Greenock, she was launched on 17th Oct.1868 for North German Lloyd, Bremen. Her maiden voyage started 16th Jan.1869 when she left Bremen for Southampton and New York and her last Bremen - New York sailing started on 16th Jan.1887. On 25th Sep.1889 she commenced her last Bremen - Baltimore voyage and was sold to H. Bischoff, Bremen on 21st Oct.1889. Rebuilt as a freighter, she sank on 16th Mar.1895 after catching fire in the North Atlantic en route Hamburg - Philadelphia. All aboard were saved by the British ship DELAWARE. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.546] [Norddeutscher Lloyd, Bremen, vol.1 by Edwin Drechsel]

The ship List

The Little Western, a 16 feet fishing dory, sailed from East Gloucester on June 12, 1880 bound for England and manned by George P Thomas and Fredrick Norman. She ran into several steamers who thought she was in distress. Coming upon the dory Little Western the Donau was delay an hour to determine that everything was okay.

The commander of the North German Lloyds steamship Donau, in a letter to the newspapers, complained of an hour's delay to his vessel, caused by his supposition that the dory Little Western contained shipwrecked persons. He says the experiment of crossing the Atlantic in small boats is now only a sporting venture, made for money and notoriety. Every shipmaster is morally obliged to investigate small boats, to discover whether they are cases of distress. It is to be feared that some shipmasters, after being fooled in the way he was in regard to the Little Western, may not pay attention to the cases of actual urgency if these sea tramps continue to cross the ocean.

Frank Leslie's popular Monthly Vol.12, 1881

The steamship Donau sailed to day for Europe with $1,051,200 in specie, including $5,000 for Harve. The whole amount was in Mexican dollars The Evening Telegram September 23, 1869 Philadelphia.

The steamship Donau arrived in New York from Bremen, January 10, 1871.

The steamship Donau from New York touched at Southampton, April 4, 1871.

Freight on the SS. Donau

Exports cleared for foreign ports indicate the following shipments on the Donau.

  1. March 27, 1871 Donau for Bremen - 50 pks Fur and Skins, 6 cases Oil Peppermint, 300 bbls Resin, - hhds Tobacco, 2 cases Cigars, 12 boxes Essential O--, 50 bales Istle*, 7 bbls Guts, 500 boxes Extract, 39 pl--, Machinery, 632 bales Cotton, 69 Whalebones -- bbls Syrup, 292 bbls Shoe-pegs, 6 bbls Flour, 5 ke-- Caviar, March 27, 1871

    *a strong fiber from tropical American plants used for making rope.

  2. August 7, 1871 Donau for Bremen 6 bales Furs, 555 tcs Lard, 4,399 bushels Wheat, 326 bbls Resin, 223 hhds. Tobacco, 1,020 seroons Tobacco, 13,694 bushels corn, 249 boxes Cheese.

    Also 2,003 bags of Rio Coffee "by the Donau, were sold on private terms"

  3. June 3, 1872 Donau fromBremen 3 cases Bromide Potass, 114 pks Aricurtural Implements, 136 bales of Tobacco, 37 pks Furs, 57 cases Tobacco, 8,955 bushels Corn, 100 boxes Spermaceti 4 pks Senna, 564 bbls Resin, 5 pks Hardware, 58 hhds Tobacco

Donau Image


The GRAF BISMARCK 1871-1898

J. Berend Peterman was on the GRAF BISMARCK August 4, 1871 to February 5, 1872 and again from February 5, 1872 to July 25, 1872.

J. Berend Petermann made two tours of duty on the Graf Bismarck serving from August 1871 to July 1872. Johann Leham made one tour of duty on the Graf Bismarck serving from February 1872 to July 1872.

Sailings for the Graf Bismarck were not listed in 1871 and most of 1872 per Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen. The first listing for 1872 was for August.

The Graf Bismarck of the Bremer line was launched at Greenock, Scotland on November 11, 1870.

In 1873 the Graf Bismarck's route was:

To the West Indies via Southampton to St. Thomas, Colon, Savanilla, Curacao, La Guayra, Porto Cabello with connection via Panama to the West Coast ports of America and on to China and Japan.

From New York March 06, 1874

Great Anxiety is expressed for the safety of the steamer Graf Bismarck which left Bremen for this port three weeks ago via Southampton, where she took passengers and cargo, leaving there on the 15th of February and has not since been heard from.
The Graf Bismarck ran into a hugh hurricane in the Atlantic.
A STEAMER PUT TO THE TEST.

The North German Lloyd steamer Graf Bismarck, Captain Meyer, which arrived at New York on the 6th of March, made the stormiest passage of ihe season. On the 12fch of February she left Bremen, with well-filled coal bunkers, 5000 bags of malt, and a large assortment of general merchandise. In the cabin were 12 passengers, and in the steerage about 40. On the 15th the steamer touched at Southampton. On the 24th a gale developed into a hurricane, which continued without interruption for 36 hours. During this storm threeboats were stove, the cabins several times flooded with water, and crockery, &c, destroyed. On February 27th, another hurricane overtook her - this time accompanied with thunder and lightning. For ten hours the gale continued, with a force and violence which momentarily threatened to engulf the steamer and all on board. During six of these hours the ship refused to mind her helm, leaving her practically at the mercy of the wind and waves. The sea during this storm is described by Captain Meyer as being more violent than anything he had ever seen before during the whole of his professional service. The ship was at times literally almost drowned amid the billows. During the lull which followed this storm, the Bismarck encountered large ice-fields, and among them a number of icebergs, some of them nearly one hundred feet high. This was in latitude 46 degrees north, and longitude 47 degrees west, in the open ocean, where icebergs at this season of the year are rarely visible. Ice is rarely, if ever, seen in this part of the Atlantic until the last of March. After parting company with the icebergs the Bismarck was enveloped in a snow storm of 15 hours duration, in which it was impossible to see the length of the ship, and the snow accumulated on her decks to the depth of a foot aud a half. But the ship weathered all these storms. She is Clyde built - we believe by Caird and Co., Greenock.

A STEAMER PUT TO THE TEST. Otago Witness , Issue 1178, 27 June 1874, Page 22

The Steamship Graf Bismarck arrived in New York March 6, 1874.

The Graf Bismarck made her final voyage to New York in 1890.


The Hudson

When launched the Hudson was the largest iron steamship yet built on the Tyne. She was propelled by engines of 700-horse power nominal, - about 2,000 effective. According to a contemporary article in the New York Times she had the following dimensions : 345* feet over all, 40 feet beam, and 26 feet deep. She had four decks, poop, spar, middle and lower. The saloons and state rooms were fitted up in a very sumptuous manner. She was fitted out to accommodate 100 first-class, 125 second-class, and about 400 third-class (steerage) passengers. Her full complement of passengers, officers, enginemen, firemen and seamen, was about 700. The Hudson was the 71st iron vessel built by by Palmer's Shipbuilding & Iron Co. (* N.R.P. Bonsor, "North Atlantic Seaway" p. 182 gives the length as 307 feet)

Norway heritage

  • 1858 June 12, launched as the Hudson for NDL
  • 1858 Sept. 11, maiden voyage Bremen - New York
  • 1858 Nov. 2, damaged by fire at Bremerhafen, towed to Palmer Bros & Co. for rebuilding - funnels reduced from two to one
  • 1862 Sold to Fernie Bros, renamed Lousiana
  • 1863 Transferred to the National Line, renamed Louisiana
  • 1864 Feb. 4, first voyage Liverpool - Queenstown - New York
  • 1869 Rebuilt: lengthened to 395.1ft, fitted with compounded engines by J. Jack & Co., new tonnage: 3,847 gross.
  • 1870 Renamed Holland
  • 1893 Sold to French subjects
Collection Baggiel Land Blanck, 2012


The KOENIG (KONIG) (König) WILHELM I, 1869-

Heinrich Reddehase born Lehe 1850 deserted from the Konig Wilhelm in New York 5 November 1873.

15.10.1873 König Wilhelm I Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Hirdes, J. New York 282 Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen

The Konig Wilhelm 1st arrived in New York from Bremen on the 1st of November 1873 under Captain Joh Gerdes with 288 passengers, one death at sea. First class 27, second class 15.

Steam-ship Koenig Wilhelm I, (Ger.) Gerdes, Bremen October 15, and Southampton 18th with mdes and 288 passengers, NYT
Note: I cannot find Heinrich Reddehase in either the crew lists or the registry.

Description of the Konig Wilhelm I;

The screw steamship " Konig Wilhelm I.," built and engined by Messrs. Caird and Co., of Greenock, for the North German Lloyd New Steam Line to tho West Indies, had her official trial trip on Saturday last, when she ran the measured mile at Skelmorlie at the rate of 12 knots per hour, at slow steam pressure, with 1,200 tons dead weight on board. She measures 2,450 tons (registers 1,69) tons), is 330 ft. in length, 39 ft. beam, and 31-ft depth from spar deck, and is fitted with engines of 350horse power. Accommodation is provided for 103 first-class passengers, 50 second, and 500 third, and she will carry from 1,800 to 2,000 tons of dead weight (fuel and cargo), her draught of water being about 20f t. when so loaded. The "Konig Wilhelm I." is the first of a new line of steamers on the eve of being started by the North German Lloyd to the West Indies, commencing at Bremen, calling at Southampton, and proceeding thence direct to Colon, Savanilla, Porto Cabello, La Guayra, and then back to Savanilla and Colon. At the last-named place the return voyage begins, only interrupted by calling at St. Thomas, the next ports being Cherborg, Southampton, and Bremen. The second vessel for this line, the " Kohn," was to have her trial daring the present week, and another, the "Graf Bismarck," is just launched. These steamers are built and fitted with special adaptation for the passenger and cargo traffic of the station on which they are to be placed. The " Konig Wilhelm I." leaves Greenock for Bremen on an early day.

The Mechanics' magazine and journal of engineering 1870

Southampton July 28, 1873 the North German Lloyd's steam-ship Konig Wilhelm I from New York July 16 for Bremen.

Ran aground in Holland, Nov 11, 1873 while bound from Bremen to New York. Reportedly there was no loss of life.

SS Konig Wilhelm I (+1873) Wreck


MAIN 1868-1891

Henry Blanck served on the MAIN from November 1870 to January 1871 and again from April 1871 to August 1871. See Henry Blanck at Sea

Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen lists:

  1. 05.11.1870 Main Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Oterendorp, K. von New York 355 passengers
  2. 29.04.1871 Main Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Oterendorp New York 739 passengers
  3. 10.06.1871 Main Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Oterendorp New York 704 passengers
  4. 29.07.1871 Main Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Oterendorp New York 641 passengers

In 1869 there was a "race" from New York to Europe between the Main and the City of Parish:

THE ATLANTIC RECORDS

A similar race has just accidentally occurred between the City of Paris and the North German Lloyd screw steamship Main, Captain K. von Oterendorp. Both these magnificent vessels left New York on June 15, within an hour and a half of each other, the Inman steamer having the start. The City of Paris arrived off Queenstown 12.15 a. m. on the 15th. Queenstown is nearer to New York by about 280 miles, or 22 hours steaming, than Southampton, and the Main, had her destination been Queenstown, would have arrived at 1.15 p.m. on the 14th inst. As she left New York 1 hours later there was a result in her favour of l and a half hours over the celebrated Inman steamer. Neither company permits any racing, but every act of seamanship was doubtless exercised on board both vessels.

Engineering, Volume 51 By Design Council, May 1891

Note I do not understand the dates.

The steamship Main from Bremen arrived New York Feb 19 1870.

The steamship Main arrived in Southampton March 9, 1870.

The steamship Main arrived New York from Bremen April 8, 1870.

The steamship Main arrived from Bremen to New York July 1, 1870.

100 prominent members of the Odd Fellows of the Most Worthy Grand Sire of the Grand Lodger of the United States and their wives sailed for Bremen on the Steamship Main on July 15, 1870

The steamship Main from New York touched at Southampton March 7,1 1871.

In 1876 the MAIN sailed from Southampton to New York with £81,000 in gold coin and bars.

Collision between the Steamship Main and the schooner Seth M.Todd, 1881

The second marine wrestling match referred to took place last Saturday night, between the North German Lloyd steamship Main and the schooner Seth M. Todd, about 30 miles southeast of Fire Island. The Main had sailed from this port on that day, on her outward voyage, and the schooner was bound from Alexandria to Boston. The latter was almost completely wrecked, and the steamer put about and towed her to the Sandy Hook lightship, whence she was brought into port.

The Insurance Times 1881

Broken Shaft 1883

The steamship Main of the north German Lloyd left Hoboken at 2 on an broke her shaft while crossing the andy Hook bar at 4:45. A tug was sent to try and pull of the bar at high tide. The Main was described as having fifty-six cabin passengers and a considerable number of steerage passengers as well as carrying a full cargo of rye, tobacco, cotton and miscellaneous. "The Main is one of the oldest vessels of the line. She was built in 1868." (New York Tribune July 15, 1883).

MAIN 1868 The first MAIN was a 3,087 gross ton ship, built by Caird & Co, Greenock in 1868 for Norddeutscher Lloyd [North German Lloyd] of Bremen. Her details were - length 332ft x beam 40ft, clipper stem, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 70-1st, 100-2nd and 600-3rd class. Launched on 22/8/1868, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to Southampton and New York on 28/11/1868. In 1878 her engines were compounded by the builders and on 6/3/1890 she commenced her last Bremen - New York voyage. On 6/3/1890 she started her final Bremen - Baltimore crossing and the following year was sold to British owners. She was destroyed by fire at Fayal, Azores on 23/3/1892. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2, p.546]

The ship List

The MAIN made her final voyage to New York in 1890.

Roots web


The NEW YORK 1858-1874

Henry Blanck was on the NEW YORK from October 1868 through July 1870. Initially he was a "sculleryman" (a kitchen worker) but on his last trip he was a steward. See Henry Blanck at Sea for more information about the arrival and departures of the New York between 1868 and 1870.

Herman Blanck was on the NEW YORK in the fall of 1868 and the summer of 1869. He was a tonge (tunge). I do not know what it was. See Hermann Blanck At Sea

Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen lists:

  1. 14.10.1868 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Dreyer, F. to New Orleans 155
  2. 02.01.1869 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt to New York 359 passengers
  3. 20.02.1869 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt to New York 298 passengers
  4. 28.04.1869 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt, W. to New York 836 passengers
  5. 09.06.1869 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Himbeck, F. to New York 792 passengers
  6. 04.08.1869 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt, W. to New York 383 passengers
  7. 10.11.1869 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt to New Orleans 128 passengers
  8. 12.01.1870 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt to New Orleans 29 passengers
  9. 13.04.1870 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt to New York 577 passengers
  10. 16.06.1870 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Nordenholt to New York 425 passengers
  11. 05.11.1870 New York Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Ludewigs to New Orleans 99 passengers

The Steamship New York Arrived from Bremen on January 18, 1869 (NYT)

Steamship New-York, (N. G.) Nordenholt, Bremen Jan 2 and Southampton Jan 5th, with mdse. and 374 passengers to Oelrichs & Co. Experienced strong westerly gales during first part of passage. Jan. 13 lat 46 56 lon 48 56 passed a Br. 4 master steamer bound E.
The New York sailed for Bremen from New York on January 29, 1869 March 10 1869, New York Times: The Steamship New York from Bremen Feb 20 and Southampton Feb 23 reached New York March 9.

Passengers Arrived

MARCH 9.--In steamship New-York. from Bremen--Mr. and Mrs. Ostheim. S. and J. Colinfeld. Isaac Walker, Mr. and Mrs. J. Pickersgill, J. Negbaur, Miss Von Wyk. M. Bock, Charles Wilken and family, Ad. Bockelmann, Robert Unit W. I, Mrs. Cath. Hofen, George Spangerbing, W. Wigger, H. Wigger, Miss Clara Neirffer, T. Frankenthal, M. and T. Felsenheld, Miss Rose Felsenheld, J. Bamberger, Mrs. Freeman, Miss Breill, J Ward, Mr. Walker and family, M. J. Gough and family, Johan Streidbeck, Mr. Batte, J. Adams, W. Rabenstein, George Gilbert, David Howard, W. White, H. W. Stike, E. W. Philgard.

The Steamship New York

The NEW YORK of was built by Caird & Co, Greenock in 1858 for Norddeutscher Lloyd [North German Lloyd] and was a sister ship to the BREMEN. She was a 2,674 gross ton vessel, length 320ft x beam 39ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts (barque rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 60-1st, 110-2nd and 400-3rd class passengers. Launched on 31st Mar.1858, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to New York on 14th Aug.1858. She made several sailings to Havana and New Orleans as well as the North Atlantic service, but commenced her final voyage for the company on 20th Dec.1873 when she sailed from Bremen for Southampton and New York. In 1874 she was sold to Edward Bates of Liverpool who removed the engines and used her as a sailing ship. On 20th Apr.1891 she was wrecked near Staten Island, NY. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2, p.544]

The ship List

Ancestry.com

The WESER 1867-1896

Two family members were connected to the WESER: Wilhelm Lange was a crew member and Julia Erxmeyer Lehmann and her daughter were passengers.

J. Wilhelm Lange born 1845 Rustof Germany J. Wilhelm Lange served as an "oberheizer" (Head stoker or fireman) on the WESER from September 5th 1870 to December 1870 (3 months and 7 days.) under Captain Wenke. He signed on the Weser again on April 11, 1872 and deserted in New York on April 28, 1872. Wilhelm Lange was the husband of Catherine Reddehase (the sister of Charlotte who married Fred Erxmeyer. See Fred Erxmeyer)

  • No arrival of the Weser in New York in September 1870
  • No arrival of the Weser in New York in October 1870
  • Arrived Steam-ship Weser, (N. G.) Wenke, Bremen Nov 19 with mdse and 330 passengers to Oelrich & co, Nov 30 a 2P. M. passed Steam-ship Wesphalia, hence to Hamburg in lat 40 25 N lon 63 20, Dec. 1 at 5 A. M. at 40 20 N Lon 72 W passed an Inman steam-ship bound E, same date at A. M. passed two steamers bound E. signals not shown. Dec 2, 1870 NYT
  • Cleared Steamship Weser (N. G.) Wenke, for Bremen Dec 17, 1870
  • The Weser arrived in New York 26 April 1872 Capt Willegrod with 749 passengers.
    ARRIVED Stream-ship Weser (N. G.) Willigerod, Bremen april 13 via Southampton, 16th wid mdse, and 749 passengers to Oelich & Co.. Had light, variable winds mostley N. E. and westerly the entire passage; on the Banks covered sky, but little fog and a high S. W. rolling. April 22 lat 45.36, lon 47.5 passed bark Highland Mary (Br.) from Greenock for Savannah; 23d lat 45.18, lon 48.10 ship John Barbour, (Br.) bounr W.; 24th lat 42.55 lon 60.13 bark Alamon (N. G.) bound W. 25th, 219 miles off Sandy Hook, passed an Inmam steam-ship bound E.

Julia Erxmeyer Lehamnn passenger on the WESER March 29, 1873

Julia Erxmeyer Lehmann and her daughter "Julia" immigrated from Bremen through Southampton to New York on the Weser March 29, 1873.

The ship manifest shows 710 passengers with two infants born at sea. Captain Willigerod, 12 first class passengers, 21 Second class and the rest steerage.

"Arrived Steam-ship Weser (N. G.) Willigerod, Bremen March 15, via Southampton September 18 the with meds and 708 passengers to order"

The Weser sailed for Germany on April 6, 1873.

Abfahrtsdaten von Auswandererschiffen lists:

  1. 19.11.1870 Weser Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Wenke to New York 335 passengers

  2. 13.04.1872 Weser Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Willigerod to New York 725 passengers

  3. 15.03.1873 Weser Nordd. Lloyd, Bremen Willigerod to New York 700 passengers
The WESER

WESER 1867 2,870 gross tons, length 325ft x beam 40ft, clipper stem, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Accommodation for 60-1st, 120-2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. Built by Caird & Co, Greenock, she was launched for North German Lloyd on 19th Mar.1867. Maiden voyage Bremen - Southampton - New York started 1st Jun.1867. Fitted with compound engines by the builders in 1881 and started her last Bremen - New York - Baltimore sailing on 13th Jun.1895. She then started the first of two Bremen - South America sailings on 3rd Aug.1895 and was scrapped in 1896. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.545]

The ship List

In November 1867 the Weser, carrying 513 German passengers, crossed from Southampton to New York in 9 days and three hours.

The Steamship Weser left Bremen February 19 and Southampton Feb 22 and reached New York early on March 5, 1870.

Heritage ships www.heritage-ships.com

To see an additional image of the WESER go to Palmer List of Merchant Vessels

The WESER made her final voyage to New York in 1894.

Wilhelm Willegerod

Wilhelm Willegerod was born in Verden in 1838 and lived in Bucken. He started his career in 1856 as a Matrose (sailor) on the Diana and worked his way up to an officer on the New York in 1868. He was the "former Captain of the Ems". He was Captain of the Bremen in 1870 and Captian of the Weser in 1872 and 1873. He was Captain of the Neckar in 1879. He was a also Captain of the Spree and other steamships. He celebrated his 200 round trip across the Atlantic in 1896. Wilhelm Willigerod visited his cousin, Oscar Willigerod, in Newark, New Jersey having arrived on 18 Oct 1910 on the Kronprinz Wilhelm.

Harper's Magazine Volume 73, August 1886

"In 1856 he went to sea in a sailing ship, and remained in sail till he got his first command eleven years later, when he was twenty-seven. Two years later he entered the present service, and in 1871 he was in command of the company s.s. Weser. This was then an important ship, she being then only three yean old, and of a gross tonnage of something like three thousand. A year later he distinguished himself by the rescue of a British crew from a sinking steamer - an experience which he has at inervals repeated throughout his long career. The most recent remember is the rescue of the passengers and crew of the illfated Abystinia, when that steamer was burnt in mid-Atlantic. That since he got his present ship. Other crews and other vessels various in nationalities have in the interval had to thank him for services rendered, and I need not dwell on them. When the North German Lloyd Company determined to start their express service, Captain Willegerod had the first vessel then built. This was the unlucky Elbe, and since that time he has had most of the new vessels as they came out. The Spree has been the vessel which has, perhaps, brought him nearest to serious disaster, and that through no fault of his. We all remember her breaking her shaft and holling herself aft some two or three years ago when she was towed into Queenstown with the water over the intermediate saloon flour, and the difficulty that Haulbowline Dockyard found in dealing with so long a craft. Since then, when in charge of a pilot, the vessel has made acquaintance with the coast of the Isle of Wight, and on both these occasions the captain has not only had the satisfaction of averting all loss of life, but has had his exertions rewarded by seeing them successful in the saving of all the property committed to his charge.

Marine engineer and naval architect, Volume 18, June 1, 1896


At Sea

The distance in nautical miles between New York and Bremen is 3,590.

Although the ships that Berend Petermann, Henry and Hemmann Blanck, Frederick Erxmeyer and Henry Erxmeyer, and Johann Lehman sailed on were called steamers they also had sails.


Sea Lanes Martin D Stevers and Captain Jonas Pendlebury, 1935

"overhaul time" about 12 stories high.


Sea Lanes Martin D Stevers and Captain Jonas Pendlebury, 1935

" Imagine such visitors as these coming aboard day and night for weeks, one after another without letup— and you have some idea of life in a while "running the easting down" on the long sweep with the prevailing westerly winds from the Cape of Good Hope to Australia! The reverse voyage around the Horn was of corse equally wet, until the ship worked far enough north to get into the southeast trades."

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck


Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction, development ... By French Ensor Chadwick, Albert Edward Seaton, William Henry Rideing, John H. Gould, James Douglas Jerrold Kelley, Ridgely Hunt, 1891.

On The Bilge in A Gale

Water that does not run off the ship drains down into the "bilge" inside the ship. This water must be pumped out to keep the ship from taking on too much water and possibly sinking.


Scribner's Magazine July 1893, The Life of the Merchant Sailor, Washing Down The Deck

Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction, development ... By French Ensor Chadwick, Albert Edward Seaton, William Henry Rideing, John H. Gould, James Douglas Jerrold Kelley, Ridgely Hunt, 1891.

Washing Down The Deck

The decks were washed every day. On many ships it was the duty of the morning crew.

In warm weather, you cannot lie in bed after daylight in the morning. You get up about five o'clock, and if you want a marine bath you can have it at the hose with which the sailors are washing the deck. The deck is washed and scrubbed every morning, and made more beautifully clean and white than you will find any floor in Scotland. The hose is similar to that of a fire engine, and the water is pumped out of the sea by steam.

The United Presbyterian Magazine 1877


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, Graphic America — the stoke hole, The Graphic, March 19, 1870

A combination of steam and sail ship were introduced after 1850. Later ships were entirely steamed powered.

Steam was raised using coal furnaces. Stokers (also known as firemen) shoveled the coal into the furnaces. It was hot and dirty work.

Work in the engine room especially as firemen was extremely punishing. It was hot and dirty work.


Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction and development, 1891

Stoke Hole

THE STEAMSHIP BOILER ROOM 1885

Every traveller on an ocean steam-ship has observed the firemen who, smut - covered and panting, climb up at intervals out of the boiler-room to the deck to get a breath of fresh air. Yet even the sight of them does not give a vivid idea of the heated dungeon where they work. The decent to it, always by ladder, is like the decent into a cavern. There are piles of coal, the hot boilers, the light the fires give, and only such fresh air as comes down the shaft. They work out of communication with everyone except the engineers, and they give less heed to calm or stormy weather than anybody else on board. They keep the fires constantly burning, but here their likeness to the vestal virgins ends, except in that the well-being of the passengers, if not of worshipers, depends on their vigilance. They have never been assigned to a place of honor or tradition equal to the tars who lead a more venturesome life above them; but since the day when steam-ships superseded sailing craft as a means of travel, the engineers and firemen have been incomparably more important persons than the sailors, and they are no whit less interesting. On the modern ocean steamer they outnumber the sailors sometimes two to one.
Frederick Erxmeyer was a stoker on the Donau in 1868 and 1870. See Fred Erxmeyer at Sea

Heinr. Erxmeier of Vorbruch was a Kohlm--- on the Donau in Apri 1871. He deserted from this ship in August 1871. See Heinrich Erxmeier At Sea


Deck Steward from Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction, development ... By French Ensor Chadwick, Albert Edward Seaton, William Henry Rideing, John H. Gould, James Douglas Jerrold Kelley, Ridgely Hunt, 1891.

The chief steward had an "army" of stewards under his command. Their main duties were to wait on passengers, particularly in the state rooms and saloons. Henry Blanck and John Lehmann were stewards.


These images show a steward bearing drinks to the first class passengers. In the image on the left the steward is in the background to the left. In the image on the right he is the man wearing the white uniform.

These type of images are known as cigarette or trading cards. These cards were advertising cacao and chocolate made by Hartwig & Vogel in Dresden.


Specie Room of a Passenger Ship Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction, development ... By French Ensor Chadwick, Albert Edward Seaton, William Henry Rideing, John H. Gould, James Douglas Jerrold Kelley, Ridgely Hunt, 1891.

Specie is money in coin. The German Lloyd ships carried the mail, specie and other valuables between Harve, Southampton, Bremen and New York. These specie and valuables (such as jewelry and gold) were kept in safes constructed of thick steel

plates which are riveted together and protected with steel doors.


Happy Sailors on a whaler after a painting by Carol Grethe (Deutsch Illustrite Zeiutung, undated c. 1890)

Collection Maggie Land Blanck, Scribner's Magazine, The Life of the Merchant Sailor July 1893

Dinner in the Forecastle


Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction and development, 1891

Forecastle


Collection Maggie Land Blanck, Scribner's Magazine, The Life of the Merchant Sailor July 1893

Riding Down a Stay and Stowing a Topsail


Collection Maggie Land Blanck, Scribner's Magazine, The Life of the Merchant Sailor July 1893

Stowing the jib


Collection Maggie Land Blanck, Scribner's Magazine, The Life of the Merchant Sailor July 1893

Man overboard


Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction and development, 1891

Night signaling.


Collection Maggie Land Blanck

Seereise auf einem luxusdampfer - Exercieren an den Booten

Voyage on a luxury steamer - training on the boat.


Ocean steamships: a popular account of their construction and development, 1891

Muster - inspection of the crew.


Muster - inspection of the crew.


Crossing The Line

The ceremony of Crossing the Line was an ancient hazing rite celebrated when a sailor crossed the Equator for the first time. The ceremonies frequently featured King Neptune, Amphitrite and Tritons all in costume. The ceremonies could sometimes last for two days and were often quite brutal. Baptism or emersion in water was almost always a feature.

Crossing the Line, i.e., either the equator or the Arctic circle, was formerly the occasion, not only among merchant vessels and men-of-war, but also among whalers, for curious ceremonies that are now well-nigh obsolete. The details of the performance varied even among the ships of the same waters, but it always took the form of some tribute to Neptune exacted from such of the officers, passengers, or crew as had never before crossed the line in question. Captain Marryat, in " Frank Mildmay," gives a description which covers all the essential points. He represents the ship as being hailed from the supposed depths of the Sea the evening before the line is to be reached, and the captain is given the compliments of Neptune and asked to muster his novices for the sea-lord's inspection. The next day the ship is hove to at the proper moment, and Neptune, with his dear Amphitrite and suite, comes on board over the bow, or through a bridle-port, if the weather permits. "Neptune appears," writes Marryat, " preceded by a young man dandily dressed in tights and riding on a car made of a gun-carriage drawn by six nearly naked blacks, spotted with yellow paint. He has a long beard of oakum, an iron crown on his head, and carries a trident with a small dolphin between its prongs. His attendants consist of a secretary, with quills of the sea fowl; a surgeon, with lancet and pill-box; a barber, with a huge wooden razor, with its blade made of an iron hoop; and a barber's mate, with a tub for a shaving-box. Amphitrite, wearing a woman's night-cap with sea-weed ribbons on her head, and bearing an albacore on a harpoon, carries a ship's boy in her lap as a baby, with a marlinspike to cut his teeth on. She is attended by three men dressed as nymphs, with curry-combs, mirrors, and pots of Eaint. The sheep-pen, lined with canvas and filled with water, as already been prepared. The victim, seated on a platform laid over it, is blindfolded, then shaved by the barber, and finally plunged backward into the water. Officers escape by paying a fine in money or rum."

To this day it is the roughest sort of rough man-handling, but it is a short shrift for those who take it good-naturedly, and, like bear-baiting, affords great amusement to the spectators.

(Curiosities of Popular Customs and of Rites, Ceremonies, Observances, 1897)

Print collection, Maggie Land Blanck, 2013
Print collection, Maggie Land Blanck, 2013The Graphic March 5, 1881


On Shore

Although the ships that Berend Petermann, Henry and Hemmann Blanck, Frederick Erxmeyer and Henry Erxmeyer, and Johann Lehman sailed on were called steamers they also had sails.

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Hercules and Omphale, by Henri Jacque Bource, Belioum artist.

For three years Herculeus was a slave of Omphale, the queen of Lydia. While in her service Hercules was forced to humiliate himself by doing traditionally female tasks.


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, Harper's Monthly Magazine, July 1873, Jack Ashore

JACK IN THE SAILOR'S BOARDING HOUSE

The big vices of sailors, as seen by social reformers, were drink and women. Drink and/or women were sited as causes for the sailors to be "rolled" — that is robbed of their money while unconscious or asleep.


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, Harper's Monthly Magazine, July 1873, Jack Ashore

THE SAVINGS BANCK


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, Harper's Monthly Magazine, July 1873, Jack Ashore

"THE EXCHANGE" — SHIPPING CREWS, SIGNING ARTICLES AND PAYING OFF


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, Harper's Monthly Magazine, July 1873, Jack Ashore

AN OLD TAR'S WELCOME


Heritage ships www.heritage-ships.com

"Norddeutscher Lloyd steamship built 1865 at Greenock by Caird & Co. On this picture the ship's officers are seen gathered on the after deck of the ship. The image is from an old stereoscopic photograph.

On back

Cris Kruger

Cousin of Meta and Anna Petermann

Sometime in the late 1980s or early 1990s when I was visiting Helen Land with my father, Bud Land. We spent an afternoon looking at her photo albums. At that time I remember seeing a photo or photos similar to this one. Helen and my dad said that it was of a cousin of Meta and Annie. However, when Helen gave me the photos there were no photos of this genre.

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck bought on Ebay in April 2003

Collection Maggie Land Blanck

Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen 21 3 1929, Photographisches Atelier Rudolf Ketch, Bremen

The bands on their hats read "Nord Lloyd Bremen"


The Sailor is alway true, he wrestles with the sea for his homeland, death is close, death is close, but fearless and courageous he always stands.
Collection Maggie Land Blanck


What I can read on his cap is "--WEHR.ABTD--

Dated 4.1.1915 "Heinr Barkhausen, Lehe, Hafenstrasse 115" This was a photo studio.

There is a message on the back hand written in German that starts" Mein liber Otto". I cannot read the rest.

Collection Maggie Land Blanck


Written on the back in pencil "montrose" (sailor).
Collection Maggie Land Blanck


Heritage ships www.heritage-ships.com

Norddeutscher Lloyd advertising card. "Norddeutscher Lloyd - Bremen nach New York, Baltimore, New Orleans & La Plata Staaten". The ship on the advertisement looks to be a ship of the Werra class, a group of ships built about 1882.

Postcard collection Maggie Land Blanck, 1912

North German Lloyd Steamship Co. New York Southampton, London Bremen Advertisement 1893

This ship is similar to the Saale:

The Saale was a sister ship to the Trave and the Aller, all built in 1886. She was built by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, (John Elder & Co. Govan, Glasgow). She was built to l accommodate 224 first class, 94 second class, and 850 third class (steerage) passengers in addition to officers and crew to the number of 170. The upper and main decks were of teak, and all deck houses were of steel and teak. The saloon was 50 feet long and 46 feet broad, and the interior fittings and ornaments were the work of the best decorators and artists of Germany. The woodwork was of oak, the hangings of red silk velvet, and the floor was covered with soft carpets, while the walls were hung with masterpieces of Munich artists. The ladies' cabin was furnished in blue plush and velvet, and the two smoking rooms in oak, with Japanese stamped leather. The second class dining room was on the main deck aft, and the steerage passengers were accommodated on the lower deck. All the modern improvements in the use of steam for navigation were adopted on the Saale, which carried 33 independent steam engines, with 65 cylinders. Her main engines were the largest triple expansion engines that had yet been constructed. The high pressure cylinder was 44 inches, the intermediate pressure, 70 inches, and the low pressure 108 inches in diameter, each was adapted for a stroke of 6 feet. All compartment bulkheads were closed with water-tight steel and iron doors, which were opened and closed from the deck, and an indicator under the eyes of the officer of the deck showed whether the doors were open or shut. In case of fire hose could be attached to pumps at 26 places on and below deck, and steam could be turned on in all parts of the ship.
North German Lloyd Fleet 1893

The North German Lloyd was the largest carrier of immigrant passengers for many years. In 1892 the line carried almost twice as many passengers as it's nearest competitor, the Hamburg-American Packet Co. out of Hamburg, Germany.
During the years 1858-1895 the North German Lloyd steamers carried in the Transatlantic trade alone more than 3,000,000 Passengers.

1896 North German LLoyd Brochure

Eash space represents 5,000 passengers

The Voyage

From Southampton to Bremen

Southampton was the terminus and port of call of several of the large steamship companies. It was a stopping point for the North German Lloyd ships headed to and from New York, Baltimore and New Orleans.

In 1879

The time from Southampton to London by the Southwestern Railroad is about two hours and a half. Trains leave South- ampton for London every hour.

After landing passengers, the mail and merchandise at Southampton the vessel headed down the river toward the English Channel. In the Channel the ship passed Worthing, Shoreham, Brighton, Beachy Head, Hastings, Dungeness, Folkestone, Dover (with its white chalk cliffs), South Foreland, Deal. The ship then enters the German Ocean. After passing Bordum and Norderney and the islands along the coast, Key-bouy indicates the entrance to the Weser River.

the Key-buoy, designating the entrance into the river Weser, is rounded, the light-house next appears on the right, and on both sides the flat lowland is seen, with red-roofed houses and church steeples, and the old-fashioned windmills with revolving sails, peeping out among the trees. The steamer casts her anchor in the river, and the steamboat approaches to take off the passengers and their baggage. On the east side of the river lies Bremerhaven, Bremen' s seaport, founded here by the enterprising citizens of Bremen in 1827, on a parcel of land purchased from the kingdom of Hanover, and since enlarged by considerable additions.

The docks are the salient feature of the town as seen from the river, and consist of three large, well-arranged basins, closed by heavy iron pontoons and flood-gates, and connected with the river through channels walled with solid masonry. The first of the docks was finished in 1830, the second in 1851, and the third in 1878 ; the latter is the most extensive. Between the docks and the river are the workshops and the dry-docks of the North German Lloyd. The docks are constantly filled with shipping ; one of them is entirely reserved for the petroleum vessels, with vast storage facilities for this article extending along the sides of the basin.

The passengers land on the quay, a few steps from the track on which the special train is waiting to carry them up to Bremen. The cars soon leave Bremerhaven behind, and cross a level country of moors and heather, passing farm-houses with gray thatched roofs and storks' nests perched on their gable ends ; old churches and windmills, with huge arms sweeping the ground. After a ride of an hour and a half the train pulls up at the station in the City of Bremen.

Across the Atlantic from New York to Southampton, Havre, and Bremen Published 1879 by S.D.L. Taunton, printer] .


Ship Owners in Bremen in 1867

In Bremen: C. L. Brauer & Sohn, W. A. Fritze & Co., Fritze & Gerdes, B. Grovermann & Co., L. F. Kalkmann & Co., Gebr. Kulenkampff, G. Lange & Co., Joh. Lange Sohns Wwe. & Co., H. H. Meier & Co., der Nord - Deutsche Lloyd, Stockmeyer Mösle & Co., Johannes Tideman, Fr. M. Victor Söhne, D. H. Waetjen & Co.

B. Grovermann & Co. were the owners of the Schiff HUDSON on which J. Berend Petermann sailed to Grennland in the winter of 1859.


For Information on sailors and more images of a sailors life go to Sailors, Seamen and Merchant Marines

For Information Bremen and Images of Bremen

For more images of ships at sea go to Immigration

My Ancestor, Berend Petermann, spent 14 years at sea. He started on a whaler in Greenland in the winter of 1859 when he was 16 years old. He made several voyages "around the world". His last voyage was in 1873. For images and information documenting Berend's time at sea go to Berend Petermann at Sea

HOME - Blanck Introduction - Henry Blanck At Sea - Herman Blanck At Sea - Frederich ErxmeyerAt Sea - Henry Erxmeyer At Sea - Joh Lehman At Sea - Engebart in Ganderkesee - J. Berend Petermann At Sea - Bremen/Bremerhaven/Lehe - Ganderkesee - Elsfleth

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Maggie


© Maggie Land Blanck - Page created 2011 from a 2005 page - Latest update, July 2013