88 Sheriff Street
My maternal grandfather, Frank Goehle, was born to German/American parents at 88 Sheriff
street in 1894.
The family lived at 88 Sheriff from at least 1890 to at least 1894.
Kleindeutschland and the Lower East Side
In the mid to late 1800s the population of much of what is now called The Lower
East Side was predominately German immigrant
(including Catholics, Protestants and Jews).
Over time the population
of the Lower East Side shifted from German immigrants to
Eastern European Jewish immigrants.
The Lower East Side was made famous by the scores of Jewish immigrants who arrived there from
Eastern Europe in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Many books, movies, plays, etc. have been devoted
cultural experience. Much has been done to preserve
and celebrate the Jewishness of the Lower East Side.
Less is remembered of the neighborhood when it was
predominately German American.
Germans had been immigrating to America since 1608 when a small group of
Germans joined the Jamestown colony in Virginia. Large numbers immigrated
between 1680 and 1760; many settling in Pennsylvania and upstate New York.
Between 1848 and 1918 nearly 6 million Germany immigrated to the US.
While many of this immigrant group of Germans settled in farming communities, about half
of them settled
in cities such as Milwaukee and Chicago.
New York City was one of the most popular destinations for this wave of German immigrants.
There were German communities in lower Manhattan and Brooklyn.
Neighboring Hoboken, New Jersey was over 40% German in the mid to late 1800s.
Hoboken was the "port" for several German shipping lines in "New York Harbor".
In 2006 17% of Americans could claim
a German ancestor.
Initially, the German community had strong cultural ties to "the old country".
There were German newspapers,
German clubs, and German festivals. The German beer halls and theater were popular.
Church services were held in German; as were instructions in religious run schools.
Until 1871 Germany was not a united country but a series of city states, dukedoms,
and principalities. German immigrants before the late 1880s associated with others
from the same
regions of Germany. Bavarian interacted
with Bavarians, Prussians with Prussians, etc.
Assimilation occurred, as it does with most immigrant groups, when the younger generation showed
a preference for English. When
the US entered WWI against Germany many German
Americans were obliged to show their loyalty to AMERICA. Many Americanized their names
to avoid anti German hostilities.
German instruction in schools and German
language church services ended.
The situation in WWI may have contributed to the fact that little has been preserved,
written or celebrated about the German immigrant population
that inhabited the Lower East Side before the arrival of the Eastern European Jews.
German Christians and the German Jews who lived there seem to have drifted off
to other places without leaving
the imprint that their successors made. On the other hand, much has been written about the
German American communities in other areas of the United States — So there has to be more to it.
On this page I want to take a look at an address where my family
lived, in an attempt to build a bit of an image of the time.
84 & 92 Sheriff street
In 1894 Frank Goehle, the son of Peter Goehle and his second wife, Wilhelmina Lindemann, was born at
88 Sheriff Street. The family lived at that address from at least 1890 to at
least Frank's birth in March 1894.
Peter Goehle, a butcher, was born in Germany in 1852 and immigrated to New York in 1873.
Wilhelmina Lindemann, born
was the daughter of Germany immigrants who
arrived in New York in the mid 1800s.
I have focused on the east side of Sheriff street in the block between Stanton and Rivington - numbers 84 through 92 -
with special emphasis on
88 and 90.
Sheriff Street was located between Columbia and
Pitt streets. It once extended from Grand Street to Houston.
Sheriff street is gone except for one block which still remains just south of Houston along the side of
Hamilton Fish Park.
At the site of what was one 88 Sheriff Street are the Masaryk Towers built in the 1960s.
88, 90 &92 Sheriff Street 1937
Sheriff Street nos 90-94 Beatrice Abbott (1898-1991) Museum of the City of
The building at the extreme right is 88 Sheriff Street.
In 1891 the Edwin Mayer "For Realton Cross" listed 90-92 Sheriff street as "6 story apt. & strs" and
88 Sheriff street as "5 story apt. & strs."
The building at the extreme right of this image is 88 Sheriff.
90 Sheriff street is the building with the bedding hanging
from the fire escape.
Frank Goehle was born at 88 Sheriff in 1894.
Colera in Sheriff Street, 1832
There was an outbreak of cholera in August 1831.
60 Cases with 18 deaths were reported in the 24 hour period of August 10, 1831.
Two cases were reported on that date at 88 Sheriff Street.
One death due to cholera was reported at 88 Sheriff street on August 3, 1832.
"Back buildings in courtyards were very subject to cholera:
in one in Sheriff street, out of forty inmates, of all colors and countries,
said to be filthy and vicious, 23 had diarrhoea, which went on to collapse in 9,
and to death in 7; of which 6 were young children who could not have been
intemperate or very vicious."
Reports of Hospital Physicians: And Other Documents in Relation to the ...
edited by Dudley Atkins
Sheriff street 1842 to 1847
Descriptions of 88-90 Sheriff Street from 1853 to 1944
88-90 Sheriff Street was described in the censuses, newspaper, maps and
various articles between 1853 and 1941. These articles are presented in greater detail below.
"a large building containing about 50 families"
"There were twelve small houses
in a row, within a back court, entered by galleries running up on the outside -
cheap brick and wood houses. All of the piazzas, banisters, railings,
every possible rope line, were hung with rags drying."
1853 Map (New York Public Library digital collection) showing 88 - 90 Sheriff street.
The Tenement House Problem published in 1901 claimed that contrary to
popular belief rear tenements were not
added on a lot that already had a building in front. But rather the other way around.
The rear building was on the lot first and the front building was added later.
It offered as proof:
- The 1852 insurance maps showed a great number of houses
located at the back of lots while
the front is entirely vacant indicating that it was not unusual to build
at the back of lots leaving a garden space in front.
- The "first" tenement law enacted in 1867 prohibited the erection of a building in front
of any lot that already had a building in the back.
"Had it been the custom at that time to erect the rear
building after the front one, the law would have been expressed in exactly the opposite way".
"two-story house, built twenty-five years since" Note: circa 1831 if this information is correct.
"dilapidated cottage buildings with narrow balconies"
According to the 1860 census there were 7 families with a total of 28 people living at 88 Sheriff and
4 families with a total of 19 people at 90 Sheriff. However, articles of the times claim
of people and "scores" of dogs inhabited these two buildings.
"wood, 2 stories, with attic and basement"
Violence in the 11th Ward. The New York Times May 1869.
On Sheriff street near Stanton lived many licensed venders whose evening amusement consisted
of fights among members of different gangs. Most of the young men involved were born in the neighborhood of German parentage.
Occasionally the fights would escalate to shootings - sometimes resulting in death.
The 1870 census listed 27 families at 88 Sheriff Street with a total of 174 people.
This census listed 20 families at 90 Sheriff with a total of 58 people.
Grammer School 22 build on the corner of Sheriff and Stanton.
There were 16 families at 88 Sheriff street in 1880 with a total of 76 people.
The number of families would indicate the typical tenement of four families per floor
indicating a four story building in 1880.
I could not find a listing for 90 Sheriff "front". The only listing for 90 Sheriff
was for 7 families living at 90 Sheriff street "rear". This may indicate
that 90 Sheriff was under construction in 1880 and therefor had no one living at that address.
The 1890 New York City Police Census listed 17 families and a total of 70 people at 88 Sheriff.
May 24, The Sun- Mrs. Annie Garter and her three children lived in two rooms on the second floor
at 88 Sheriff street. Early one morning she awoke as a burglar entered and ransacked her dresser draw.
She was too frightened to move. Her son 7 year old son Willie also woke and watched the burglar.
When the burglar left willie followed. He found a policeman at the Union Market station
and pointed out the thief.
The police arrested the thief and found about $25 of Mrs. Garter's jewelry on his person.
In article in the World Saturday
August 29, 1891 several residence of Sheriff street complained that the city street cleaners rarely came down Sheriff street.
When they did, they swept garbage into piles and left it there to rot and stink instead of carting it away.
The residence said they frequently swept and polished the pavement themselves but had to depend on the garbage cartmen for removal.
Sheriff street, running from Grand pass Broome, Delancey, Rivington and Stanton to Houston street, was
described as a "quite little street"
far out on the "Hook"
and running form nowhere to nowhere. It was a local street "with no transient throng" where working class people
lived in the big buildings on either side of the street.
In August 1891 the street was narrow and its pavement strewn with garbage "battered tinware,
broken glass and pottery-ware, shattered boxes, and collapsed baskets" in addition to
"ashes, offal, garbage and discarded articles of wear" and dead cats. The local inhabitants said they had to
keep their windows closed even in hot weather.
G. Schneider, a young man who ran a grocery at 88 Sheriff street, complained that the dirt was never carted away.
He pointed out bed ticking, an overturned barrel of garbage and
an "immense heap of reeking filth" in addition to other debris.
"At Orange County Milk Dairy it was declared that the neglect of the street ought to be made criminal by statute,
as sickness was certain to follow."
New York Times 9 December 1893 New buildings by Michael Fay and William Stacum
for three five story brick flats at 90, 92, and 94 Sheriff street $66,000
1895 Aug 9th :
Newly married 20 year old Rose Brown died of carbolic acid poisoning. The death was claimed to be accidental.
Rose had married Charles Brown of 88 Sheriff street three weeks before. They had spend all their money on new furniture
and the first month's rent. Rose was a baster in the same establishment as her husband when
the shop went out on strike and they were left with little money.
She admitted to taking the acid.
No 88 sheriff Street alterations go a four story brick tenement, by William
H. Schneider, owner, cost $500. (Alterations amounting to $500 were also done at 86 Sheriff a four story birck owner,
Bernat Springer 741 Tenth street.) New York Times October 17, 1896
REAR TENEMENTS, 1896
Half of the rear tenements in New York city in 1896 were reportedly owned by landlords who lived on the premises.
The rear tenement were considered particularly unhealthy because they were dark and poorly ventilated. The majority were
also considered filthy an "regular slaughter house for children". Building new rear tenements was prohibited in the 1880s.
However, existing rear tenements continued to exist and health reformers railed against them. Over 50,00 people supposedly
lived in 2,500 rear tenements.
The New York Times article of February 24, 1896 provided a
partial list of the rear tenements in the city which included:
80 Sheriff, landlord, Catherine Schmid, number of occupants 28
82 Sheriff street, landlord Elizabeth Gurnand, no. of occupants, 28
86 Sheriff street, landlord, Herman Kline, no. of occupants 36
88 Sheriff street, landlord, William Schneider, number of occupants 33
90 Sheriff street NOT listed
BOARD OF HEALTH, 1896
Annual Report, Year ending December 1896
The rear houses at the following properties were ordered vacated, preparatory to condemnation,
by the Board of Health, but were not condemned, as plans and specifications were submitted to and
approved by the Board of Health, subject to approval of the Department of Buildings, and the owners of
same have declared their intention to altering and repairing the houses in conformation with the plans
and specifications submitted. When said alterations are completed, the resolution ordering vacation of premises will be rescinded.
86 Sheriff street (rear)
88 Sheriff street (rear)
85 Columbia street (rear)
87 Columbia street (rear)
The summery indicates that 87 rear houses were ordered preparatory for condemnation and that 80 were actually condemned.
Map shows both 88 & 90 Sheriff were 5 story buildings. #90 was 100 feet deep. #88 was less but
had a bigger yard and
had a 4 story building in back. Both buildings were 25 feet wide.
90 had narrow air shafts on the north and south.
88 did not have air shafts of its own but shared the shaft of
#90 to the north. Compared to the other building on the block 88
appears to be about 75 feet deep.
1902, 90 Sheriff:
90 Sheriff, 5 story Brick, name of occupants, Max Slonger, candies, segars, and dwellings, fire in basement
(Annual Report of the Committee on Fire Patrol, to the New York Board of Fire ...
By New York Board of Fire Underwriters. Committee on Fire Patrol)
1902, 88 Sheriff:
88 Sheriff December 8, 1902 fire of 5th floor of a 5 story brick, W. Weiss dewlling
(Annual Report of Fire
1909 Sheriff Street Rear Tenements:
An article on the new tenement laws suggested that old tenements
that lacked light and ventilation covered the whole lot from back
to front and from and side to side. There was an insinuation that
tenements with front
and rear buildings provided more light and ventilation - perhaps being among the best
residential situations in
the Lower East side.
Map shows both buildings were 5 stories and essentially the same
as shown in 1899.
A Realtor's Guide of 1891 listed 88 Sheriff as a 5 story apt & strs and
90-92 Sheriff as 6 story & Strs. Strs=Stores.
MANHATTAN FLATS AT AUCTION
The five-story tenement at 90 Sheriff Street, on a plot
25.8 by 100 feet, will be sold at auction tomorrow...
New York Times August 2, 1931
The New York Times reported an assault at a restaurant at 88 Sheriff
TO SELL TENEMENT HOUSES
A five-story tenement house at 88 Sheriff Street, between Rivington
and Stanton Streets.......will be sold at foreclosure this week....."
New York Times October 24, 1937
Spear-O Associates bought from the 128 East 129th
Corporation the five story apartment house at 88
Sheriff Street, subject of a first mortgage of
$8,500 held by Wesleyan University. There were eighteen apartments - each of two or three rooms - in the building.
Grammer School #22
Grammer School No. 22 had been in existence from at least 1857 when it is shown on a map of the time.
1901: An addition was proposed to be completed during the summer.
Undated map post 1901. Notice the tenement buildings to the east have also been rebuilt in keeping with the
1901 tenement law.
1871: "The sum of $95,291 was appropriated for the erection of a new building for Grammar School No 22."
The New York Times July 27, 1871
THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT CITY AND COUNTY OF NEW YORK, OFFICIAL YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1873. CUSHING & BARDUA. PRINTERS, 138, 139, 141, 143 CENTRE STREET.
Grammar Scbool No. 22.
Stanton street, corner Sheriff, Eleventh Ward.
Sidney W. Merritt, 118 Taylor St., Brooklyn.
Arthur M. Lee, 161 West 36th street.
Abm. K. Van Vleck, Summit ave., J. C.
Miss Eliza B. Beilby, 89 South First st, B'lyn.
Agnes K-enen, 97J East Seventh street.
Mary E. Clark, 325 East 65th street.
Adolphine Paegelow, 215 E. Seventh st.
Lizzie Milligan, 299 East Seventh street.
(She was listed as a graduate in 1870 and also listed in the 1870 census as a school teacher.)
Maggie Burns, 233 East Seventh street.
Martha C. Milton, 108 First street
Lizzie Murray, 386 Third street
Francis H. Nash, Music Teacher, Morrisania.
Francis Melville, Drawing Teacher, B'lyn.
Miss Frances J. Murray. 246 E. 60th street
(She was listed as a principle in the at the 1870 graduation.)
Elizabeth A. Devereux, 246 E. 60th st.
Marion W. Holly, 236 Fifth street
Caroline T. Huston, 148 Powers St., B'lyn
Cornelia Howe, 72 Morton St., Brooklyn
Miss Rachel J. Wilbur, 126 Avenue C
Rose Riegelmann, 316 Fifth streetp
Francis H. Nash. Music Teacher, Morrisania-
Francis Melville, Drawing Teacher, 192 Prince
Miss Helen Stein, Teacher of German, 5 Mit-
Miss Julia A. Bell, 24 Third street
Annie M. Murray, 246 East 60th street
Eugenia Green, 247 East 50th street
Miss Amelia Quick, 383 Clermont ave, B'lyn
" Mary F. Hasson, 335 East Fourth street.
Rebecca M. Graham, 240 Seventh street
Betsie Robertshaw, 210 W. 17th street
Sarah Oldenburg, 270 Rivington street
She is in the 1870 census, teacher Rivington Street. In 1851 English census in Liverpool
Amelia Rcpper, 20 Avenue C.
(She was a graduate of the school in 1870. MLB)
Mary B. Macrae, 8 Columbia street.
(She was a graduate of the school in 1870. MLB)
Mrs. Josephine Ross, 114 India st., Greenp't
Euphemia Hamilton, 715 E. Ninth st.
Miss Lizzie Fitzgerald, 521 Pearl street
Minnie Schadel, 640 East Ninth street
Margaret La Mond, 29 Sheriff street
Hannah R. Phillips, 105 Grand street
Susan E. Crummy, 607 East 11th street
Miss Olive E. Barber, 156 Taylor st,, B'klyn.
William A B. Wade, in the building
There was concern about saloons being too close to churches and schools.
Grammer School #22 corner Stanton and Sheriff street;
saloon of Moskowitz, 103 sheriff; saloon of Blackner 116 Cherry street;
saloon of Landsman, 263 Stanton street.
New York Times March 27, 1895
1902: September 7,
Public School No 22 at Sheriff Street had twenty
additional classrooms almost ready to open on a contract that expired Jan 1902.
Janitor George Wade of Public School No. 22 was on trail before the Department of Education for using the school's coal.
Wade stated that when he lived at the school he was provided with the coal and he claimed he was still entitled to use it.
Ullman: Solomon Ullman
Solomon Ullman, Republican, representing the Sixth Assembly District, New York county, was born in New York city and always
lived within that district. He was graduated from public school No. 22, Stanton and Sheriff streets, and from the
Townsend-Harris-Hall high school. In 1912 he was graduated from the New York Law School and admitted to the bar in 1913.
He practices law at 51 Chambers street, New York city. Mr. Ullman is married and resides at 268 E. 7th street, New York.
He is actively affiliated with the following organizations and societies: , Israel Orphan Asylum, Adolph Ullman Aid Society, Kron. prinz Rudolph Kranken Unt. Verein, Federal Camp No. 14921,
M. W. A.; Federal Club; Veritas Lodge, F. & A. M.; John Marshall Harlan Club, Irving Literary Society, Zenith Lodge, I. O. B. A
The New York Red Book, 1920
The Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, 1853 to 1878
as reported in the press
88-90 Sheriff street was a notorious place in the 1850s. It was the reputed
home to a large group of
German "rag pickers" and was repeatedly used
by reform minded groups as a prime example of the worst examples of tenement dwelling.
The rag pickers were noted in New York City as early as 1842, although I have not found specific
reference to Sheriff street. It was assumed that they were:
"county-bred Germans who had taken to this occupation through their frugal habit
of saving and making use of every
available bit of material, and had
found their opportunity in the general prodigality of
refuse dumped in great heaps and piles throughout the city."
At the time that the following articles were written, New York City did NOT have
a system of garbage collection. So, in fact, the "rag pickers" were performing a service.
Otherwise, much of what they collected would have been left on the streets to rot.
it will be seen that many rag pickers made a "good living" - some supposedly
became quite "wealthy".
Record of the industrial Commission by USIC, James Henderson Kyle and Albert
The "rag pickers" where not limited to foraging for rags. They also collected paper,
pieces of metal, leather, glass - anything that could be recycled, reused and/or sold.
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, January 1853
WALKS AMONG THE NEW-YORK POOR, 1853
According to an article in the New York Times in January 1853 German
rag pickers numbering in the thousands lived mostly in the eleventh and seventeenth Wards.
They were reported to live in large lodging-houses "sometimes three hundred in a house".
The reporter, a certain "C. L. B." visited the "colony"
of rag pickers on Sheriff street of which he says:
"There were twelve small houses
in a row, within a back court, entered by galleries running up on the outside -
cheap brick and wood houses. All of the piazzas, banisters, railings,
every possible rope line, were hung with rags drying."
The Germans who lived in this colony "men women and children"
were up at five o'clock in the morning to set out on their search for rags.
C. L. B. interviewed one woman who "did not speak English".
Her husband was a day laborer but he had broken his leg and was in the hospital.
She was the sole support of her children and an old grandfather. She could make
"two shillings" a day picking rags. Her children helped her. She paid $4 a month for
"one room with a closed bed-room behind".
In another house were a father and children (number not stated) in the
front room and a sick mother in the bed-room. The father and children made $3
a week picking rags. The rent was again $4 per month for the two rooms.
"In the next house" was another rag picker family. This family appeared to
do somewhat better and could average 50 cents a day. "An active boy outside,
who spoke very good English, said he could make $4 to $5 a week, picking bones."
Rents were cheaper in the basement - $3.50. The families in the basements generally
made less, "two to four shillings a day" and yet again the business was picking rags.
The rooms smelled horribly. C. L. B. was told that in the summer the "houses are
intolerable from the stench" and during the cholera season that "pestilence"
was especially fatal in "these localities".
A point was made that the rent from these 12 houses amounted to $360 a
month or $4,320 a year.
The reporter then went to a different rag picker location in Third street.
"Rags are flaunting on every side, and little girls are sorting and washing them.
Heaps of bones, carefully sorted, lie in different parts of the court."
"These German rag and bone-pickers, though they live in such filth, are frequently
much better off than might be supposed. They all look to going West, eventually.
German emigrant has a hankering for land. Nearly all of these lay up money.
A colony, last year, of about 300 persons, occupied a basement, near East River;
lived promiscuously together, with their great bone-heap in the midst of the floor,
from which they could scrape or boil enough for an occasional meal. They seemed
in the utmost destitution, and were living in a squalor, to which a poor American
could seldom, by any circumstances, be driver. In the Spring when travel was
cheap again, they all, with the little earnings they had brought from Germany,
started for the West, to settle down on farms."
New York Times, January 22, 1853
Note: Several articles on the rag pickers make reference to
colonies of rag pickers moving to a town in the West or to the Western Prairies -
no specific location named.
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, April 1853
"THE RAG PICKERS AND BONE GATHERERS IN NEW YORK
The inhabitants of 88-90 Sheriff street earned their keep by scavenging for rags and bones.
They set off each morning about dawn armed with pokers and baskets to collect
Others using dog carts collected the refuse of kitchens and butcher shops.
At the end of the day
everything collected was sorted. The cotton and linen rags were sold to make paper.
woolen rag were sold to make rugs. The bones are boiled and any meat clinging
to the bones eaten by the
rag-pickers. The cleaned bones were sold (The article does not say for what purpose,
but bone was used to make many things that are now made of plastic: tooth brushes, combs, umbrella handles and the like.).
The deeper one descends in the gradations of social positions in this city, the more
apparent does it become that 'one-half of the world don't
know how the other half lives.' The bone and rag gathers, — answering to the
'Chiffoniercs' of Paris, — are almost exclusively Germans, and are mostly
congregated on the eastern side of the city, and from their clannish disposition, peculiarity
of language, and habits, form communities
or 'colonies' as distinct as though no others surrounded them. Withdrawn from
intercourse with their fellow
men, they only emerge with their hooks and poles, to add to their filthy accumulations.
Under the escort of
Capt. Squires, of the 11th police district, we were favored with a glimpse of the 'real life'
among these degraded creatures.
For dwelling, they generally select such as are constructed for the accommodation of
numerous families under a single roof. These are put up very slightly, at a comparatively
small expense, and the revenues accruing to the owners, from rents, form a large
percentage on the capital invested........
...... On Sheriff street, is a large building containing about fifty families.
The habitants of the rag-pickers may generally be recognized by the long rows of rags swinging
lines, to dry, and looking like the brown wetted leaves in a tobacco shed.
" Notwithstanding the extreme degradation of the German rag pickers, they appear happy,
and exhibit no
signs of discontent.
With many the Western States is the promised land, and every effort is made to accumulate
sufficient funds to enable them to emigrate. A colony of three hundred persons is mentioned,
which occupied a single basement last year, living promiscuously together, with a common
bone heap, to which all contributed, and from which was derived a portion of their sustenance.
Though seeming to be in utter destitution, they all stated for the
West last spring to settle on farms."
Inclement weather like snow were "among the worse calamities" to befall the rag picker.
Information in this section from "The N. Y. Journal of Commerce, as copied by the National of April 13th, 1853"
APPENDIX TO NOTES Notes on Uncle Tom's Cabin by the Rev. E. J. Stearns, A. M.
- This Article was repeated verbatim in the WESLEYAN Thursday April 21, 1853.
- Other articles make reference to "the Western prairies"
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers,
As reported in Friends' Review; a Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal April 5, 1856
LIFE IN NEW YORK; OR, THE PLAGUE SPOTS OF A GREAT CITY
A Committee of the State Legislature visited New York City in order
to examine the houses of the poor.
The Committee also visited "Rag-pickers of Paradise,"
in Sheriff street, which is thus described: —
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, July, 1856
This building is what may be called the settlement of the Hook
and Basket Company. It is a two-story house, built twenty-five years since,
and occupied by Germans, who obtain a livelihood by picking up rags and
bones in the gutters. Extending from this to the front building were
about fifty lines covered with little pieces of rags,
which had been washed and hung to dry. We counted over
sixty dogs in the yards, which the Germans kept to draw their
carts. The people were all at work, even the little children,
washing and hanging up the old rags. The rents here
are higher than in any other house in the city, on account of the
business privileges the occupants enjoy. In front of
this building is a large rag depot, where they sell their rags and bones,"
As reported in the New York Sun on July 4, 1856
No 88 Sheriff st.- Rag Pickers Paradise - is one of the most disgusting
places that can be found in a year's travel, being
filled with men,
women, children dogs, rags, bones etc., and the stench is
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, July, 1856
No 90 Sheriff street is of the same description, only, if possible, worse."
As reported in the New York Times on
July 7, 1856
the tenement committee was out and about the lower east side checking out conditions
in the 11 the and 13th wards.
"After calling at No 316 Rivington street, the Committee proceeded to a lovely retreat in
the rear of Nos. 88 and 90 Sheriff street, called "Rag Picker's Paradise."
About a block off the stench was clearly perceptible, and at the very entrance of
the alley-way leading to the premises were found lying several bags of bones just
brought from the slaughter-house, preparatory to being boiled. The "Rag Picker's Paradise"
consists of a row of dilapidated wooden structures, three stories high, the stairs being
nearly perpendicular, and the whole occupied by rag pickers. In the yard, and on the
stoops and in the entries, were bags and baskets of bones and calves heads, with the
flesh still clinging to them and emitting a stench bad enough in itself, but absolutely
refreshing compared to the other prevailing smells of the place. Scurvy curs, fierce
and numerous, barked from every hole and corner, but were quickly silenced by their
owners on our approach.
The committee almost with one voice exclaimed that such a place as this should not be
suffered to exist a day longer, as imperiling the health h of the neighborhood and
the City. Part of the "Paradise" is owned by James Boyle of No. 24 Mangin street1
and the remainder by Christian Snyder2 residing on the premise. Hans Snyder3
is a retired rag picker. On one side of the alley-way leading to the "Paradise" is a rag depot,
containing a large number of immense bags already filled and destined for the paper makers."
The New York Tenant Houses
"Rag Pickers Paradise:
embracing No 88 and 90 Sheriff Street, was proceeded to next. The --- of
the premises to be visited was perceptible when the committed had reached
within a block of the place. The surrounding air breathed of dogs and decayed
rags and putrefied flesh. At the entrance the first thing --- upon
was a number of bags of one with flesh clinging to them, just brought hither
from the slaughter house, preliminary to being boiled. The rooms in the building
are limited in space, but every inch of space is appropriated with beds, dog
kennels and rags. In the yard and on the stoops and in the entries were --ible
bags and baskets of bones and calves' heads with portions of flesh remaining and
emitting a most offensive odor. The dogs set up occasional howls, adding to
the delight of the visit. It was the unanimous voice of the committee that
this place should not be allowed to be tenanted, and by the class of tenants
it was, a day longer, as being dangerous to the public health. On one side of
the alley way leading to the "Paradise" was a rag depot, in which was --- a large
number of bags filled with rags for paper makers. Mr. Downing ordered the proprietor
to vacate directly."
The New York Herald Jul 6, 1856
- James Boyle, an Irishman, of
90 Sheriff was listed as a junk shop owner in The New York Irish
by Ronald H Bayor, and Timothy J Meagher.
- James Boyle listed at 90 sheriff Street "iron" 1851 NYC Directory
- "James Boyle dealer in iron at No 22 Mangin-street" filed
for bankruptcy"debts amounting to $36,000." (July 14, 1878, New York Times.)
- I did not find him in the 1850, 1860 or 1870 censuses
2Although Snyder was a relatively common name in NYC,
it is possible that
Christian Snyder and Hans Snyder are related. See more on the Snyder/Scneiders below.
3Hans Snyder was most likely "John Schneider" who lived for
at 88 Sheriff Street. See below.
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, August 1856
In August 1856 an attempt was made to clear out the "Rag Pickers Paradise"
at 88 and 90 Sheriff:
CLEANING COTTAGE-ROW AND RAG PICKERS
The New York Herald also carried this story:
The work of clearing out Cottage-row, comprising the
three tenement houses Nos. 102, 104, and 106 Third Street, occupied principally by
rag-pickers, and also
Nos. 88 and 90 Sheriff-street, know as
Rag Pickers Paradise, was commenced on Saturday last by the
City Inspector. It will be remembered that these places were visited by the Legislative Tenement
Committee, and declared by them nuisances. The City Inspector
recently called the attention of the Commissioners of Health to there
condition, announcing that in their present condition, they were endangering the public health,
upon which he was empowered to take such action as he deemed necessary to --ate the nuisances.
The occupants have been turned out, and the entire premises of
both localities are being subjected to through cleaning, fumigation and white washing.
New York Times August 11, 1856
The Health Commissioners yesterday gave the City Inspector power
to compel the tenants of Rag Picker' Row and Rag Picker's Paradise, in Sheriff and
Third streets, to vacate forthwith the premises. Extracts from a communication from
the City Inspector describing these premises, and submitted to the Commissioners,
are give in the report of the proceedings of the Board, to be found elsewhere.
It is understood that a number of the lower class tenant house of the city
will be directed to be similarly vacated, so as not to jeopardize the health of
those living adjacent to such tenements."
The News, The New York Herald, Aug 7, 1856, pg 4
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, 1857
In 1857, 88 Sheriff street was described as:
"a rambling row of wooden tenements which was known
as "Ragpickers Paradise," and was inhabited by Germans, who dwell in small rooms, in almost fabulous gregariousness, surrounded
by scores of dogs, and canopied by myriads of
rags fluttering from lines crossing their filthy
yards, where bones of dead animals and noisome
collection of every kind were reeking
with pestiferous smells. One
contains more than fifty families."
88 & 90 SHERIFF IN 1857
The investigating committee of
the New York State Assembly reporting in 1857 as quoted in
Foreign Immigration and the
Tenement House Problem 1900, by Robert Weeks De Forest, Lawrence Veiller (Google Books)
Condition of the City
Conditions of the city were recorded for each Ward. Listed among the "most filthy buildings"
of the city that needed the most immediate attention.
No. 88 Sheriff-street requires immediate attention; it is another hole tenanted by German rag-pickers, about forty in number; old bones and rags are allowed to be left lying in and about the yards and hall, the odor arising from which is beyond description.
Note: The 1860 census enumerates 28
people at 88 Sheriff and 19 people at 90 Sheriff.
No. 90 Sheriff street, adjoining the above, is a like establishment, occupied by the same class of people, about fifty. A regular washing establishment is kept here for cleaning rags.
July 2, 1857,
New York Times
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, 1858
Friends Intelligencer volume XIV 1858
"In the rear of Nos. 88 and 90 Sheriff street, in the Eleventh Ward
is located "Rag-pickers Paradise". It is so named from the fact that hundreds of
rag and bone-pickers reside,
assort and sell their stock in trade at this point.
Formerly this place, and numerous others in this ward, were greater nuisances than
they are at the present
time. Parties doing business at these places have, during the past year, been under
the supervision of Health Warden Green. By dint of public effort, he
has partially succeeded in educating them in the matter of cleanliness. Much yet
remains to be done.
The entrance to "Rag-pickers Paradise" is from Sheriff street, when you at once
approach a block of dilapidated cottage buildings
with narrow balconies in which are hung large quantities of cut-off garments, rags, etc.,
in the process of drying.
Note: Does not sound to me like much of an improvement under
Health Warden Green. MLB
The block is occupied by pickers both male and female. As you pass you are saluted
at once on entering by a
regiment of dogs, and you may regard yourself fortunate if you escape a bite. At
least fifty or sixty dogs are kenneled within the yard and houses. Some of them have evidently
in their day done service, harnessed to the rag cart in the transportation of the sickening
nuisance in the shape
of decayed vegetables, damaged meat, bones, bread, cheese, and numerous other obnoxious
sundries, which are
scattered promiscuously in the yard and emit a stench almost unendurable
by mortal man, who has never educated his nasal organs to relish such vile
stinks for the sake of
hoarding up a few hundred dollars.
It is mid day. You enter the rooms occupied by the pickers. Their rags
and bones are mainly sorted there. In barrels, boxes, baskets and pans, on the table,
under the table, in chairs and every corner of the room, may be seen the most disgusting
collection of matter gathered and garnered, awaiting the arrival of the wholesale merchants
withe their two hour wagons to whom they are
about to sell the sickening trash. You hasten to the street. The wagons are in waiting. The
accumulated nastiness is moving from the yards. Progress is being made in transferrin barrels,
and tubs from the yard.
Municipal corruption corrupted! Whew! what a smell! At least a a dozen carts are being loaded
in the street, and this, too at the
business hour of the day, 1 o'clock p.m. Well would it be if this was but once in a
lifetime. It is a regular daily transaction, yet, strange to say, respectable families reside
and do business in that
neighborhood and vicinity. These carts frequently remain in the streets for three or four
hours, waiting for their daily customers who may have strolled too far away from
Paradise with their heavy burdens to return in time."
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, 1860
"Next in order comes 'Rag Picker's Row' and bone repository. This nuisance
should be destroyed. It is situated in the rear of Nos. 84, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94
and 96 Sheriff street. The houses are of wood, two stories with attic and basement.
The attic rooms are used to deposit the filthy rags and bones as they are taken
from the gutters and slaughter houses. The yards are filled with dirty rags
hung up to dry, sending forth their stench to all the neighborhood,
and is exceedingly nauseous, operating upon me as an emetic.
The tenants are all Germans of the lowest order, having no national
or personal pride; they are exceedingly filthy in person, and their
bed clothes are as dirty as the floors they walk on: their food is
of the poorest quality, and their feet and heads, and doubtless
their whole bodies, are anasarcous, suffering from what they call rheumatism,
but which is in reality a prostrate nervous system, the result of foul air,
and inadequate supply of nutritious food. They have a peculiar taste
for the association of dogs and cats, there being about 50 of the
former and 30 of the latter. The whole number of apartments is 32,
occupied by 28 families, number 120 in all, 60 adults and 60 children.
The yards are all small and the sinks running over with filth. The owner
of one-half of this row is named Henry Greffelman, and of the other
Christopher Sneider. The latter gentleman is a wealthy man
and lives with his tenants in the rear, although he owns the
front house; he prefers the filth because' he thus saves some money.
He buys and sells rags, a perfect chiffonier. Not one decent
sleeping apartment can be found on the entire premises, and not
one stove properly arranged. The carbonic acid gas, in conjunction
with the other emanations from the bones, rags and human filth, defies
description. Average rent of apartments $3,50 a month. The rooms are 6X10 feet,
bedrooms 5x6 feet. It will be noticed that there are very few children
in all these tenement houses, the reason being that the offspring of
such parents have only a small amount of vitality; with but a
vegetable existence, they either wither under the scorching
sun of summer, or chill to death in the winter."
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, 1865
Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York, Volume 4
By New York (State). Legislature. Assembly, 1860
In the Report of the Council of hygiene and public health of the Citizens'
Association of New York upon the sanitary condition of the city
By Citizens' Association of New York. Council of Hygiene and Public Health, Citizens' Association of New York
Published by D. Appleton and Co., 1865,
"The place and its inhabitants
have been aptly described in the following language by Dr. Guernsey in a special
report made to the New York
Sanitation Association by that Physician:
4 A general accumulation of serous fluid in various tissues and body cavities. (Online free dictionary)
"This nuisance should be destroyed. It is situated in the rear of Nos. __ and _ Sheriff street. The houses are of wood, 2
stories with attic
and basement. The attic rooms are used to deposit filthy rags and bones as they are taken
from the gutter and slaughterhouses. The yards are filled with dirty
rage hung up to dry, sending forth a stench to all the neighborhood and is
exceedingly nauseous, operating upon me
as a emetic. The tenants are all
Germans of the lowest order, having no national or personal pride. They are exceedingly
filthy in person and their bedclothes are as dirty as the floors
they walk on. There food is of the poorest quality, and their feet and heads,
and doubtless there whole bodies, are anasarcous4, suffering from what they call
rheumatism, but which is in reality a prostrate
nervous system, the result of foul air and inadequate supply of nutritious food.
They have a peculiar tastes for association of dogs and cats, there being about 50 of
and 30 of the latter. The whole number of apartments is 32, occupied by 28 families,
numbering 120 in all, 60 adults and 60 children. The yards are
small and the sinks running with filth. The owner of this row is _____
and of the other __. The latter gentleman is a wealthy man and lives with his tenants
in the rear, although
he owns the front house; he prefers the filth because he thus saves
money. He buys and sells rags - a perfect "chiffonier." Not one decent sleeping
apartment can be found on the
entire premises and not one stove properly
arranged. The carbonic-arid gas, in conjunction with the other
emanations from bones, rags, and human filth, defies description. The rooms are
6 by 10; bedrooms 5 by 6 feet. The inhabitants lead a miserable existence and their
children wilt and die in their infancy."
5 I believe that "Dr. Guernsey" was
Egbert Guernsey, who according to a New York Times article in 1890 was a person whose "name
had long been associated with works of a public nature".
For more information on Dr Guernsey go to
Dr. Guernsey now or at the bottom of the page.
Sheriff Street Rag Pickers, 1868
The Third Annual Report of the Metropolitan Broad of Health, State of New York
1868 does not specifically target 88-90 Sheriff Street.
However, the following comments were made regarding Sheriff Street.
"For instance, one house in Sheriff Street, having a population of ninety-six
persons, had four deaths in nine months. This house, although one of the most modern
in that street, is also one of the most dismal. The bed-rooms
are dark and unventilated; the halls closed and fetid, and the entire building
arranged wholly with regard to the numbers of families the space may be made to contain,
without any provision for their heath and comfort.
Two other houses on one lot which faces the same street, with an open
privy in the little yard between them, having an aggregated population of fifty-eight
persons yielded a similar mortality."
And "the four blocks in the rag-pickers district on Sheriff and Willett streets"
the so called "fever nests"
"an utter neglect of ventilation and adequate means for daily
scavenging and purification of the tenement-blocks, that they invite and perpetuate
the most pernicious infections, and thus become sources of peril not only to their own
to the wealthier classes in their vicinity."
An English Perspective on the New York Rag Pickers, 1878
LONDON SOCIETY AND ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE LISGHT AND AMUSING
LITERATURE THE HOURS OF RELAXATION VOLUMEN XXX LONDON 1876
George Makepeace Towle
Quite a different prospective of the German rag pickers is
provided in this English article published in 1876. It does not
specifically mention Sheriff street but clearly refers to the GERMAN
rag pickers versus others of a "lower class" of rag picker found in New York City.
"As to the greater variety in the phases of New York poverty,
this is clearly
due to the fact that the New York poor are,
in the main, the refuse of the older nations - the scum of the tares of immigration."
Despite statements like the one above this article almost makes
the rag picker seem a hero: he required
little capital, was free to work when he wanted, the "wistfulness of humanity"
was his opportunity. It was deemed preferable to mining, dreary factory work,
or working the boiler in the bowls of a ship.
"This is an age, particularly in England and America,
of a very vivid interest on the part of the well-to-do in the
condition of and alleviation of the very poor."
The writer goes on to say.
"The rag pickers of New York have been
objects of especial interest and study to ladies devoted to
the cause of ameliorating human suffering."
Rag picker collected anything that could possible be reused or sold for reuse.
Once the days gathering was done the rag picker returned to his home to sort
his findings. An active an skilled rag picker could make a decent wage.
This writer states that there was a social order among the rag
pickers and that for many immigrants it was but a stepping stone to a
better life. Many unemployed newly arrived immigrants turned to rag picking because
it required "nothing but hands and feet and moderate energy".
"There is, in a obscure, but by no means squalid, by-street of New York a
colony of these German rag-pickers, who have collected together on the principle
that poverty loves, company, and after the social manner of Teutons everywhere.
Here are about a hundred families, comprising between four and five hundred persons. They are in no sense paupers. Not more than two families live in the same house; and the houses are neat,
not gloomy, two-story buildings. Several bear-gardens near at hand attest the fact that they are neither too poor not too disheartened to patronize amusements the taste for which they have brought hither from the Faderland. Enter their houses: you will see nothing to revolt you; everything
is neat and tidy, though scant, perhaps, and homely; and there is a look about the
housed which is really home-like. In the morning you will see the groups of
clean neatly dressed children coming out of the houses, and if you follow
them you will see them enter the great brick public school several squares off,
where they are taught in common with the children of the well-to-do citizens."
This could certainly be describing Sheriff Street as it appears in the censures, versus the
depiction in the press.
Rag pickers were (and in some places in the world still are) a symbol of the bottom of the barrel, comparable with
beggars, paupers and vagrants.
At the same time, Jacob Riis portrayed the New York City German rag pickers as hard working
and industrious people who later became "thrifty tradesmen and farmers".
The Rag Pickers Myth?
The press reported large numbers of rag picking families and people living together on
Sheriff Street - numbers 88 and 90 are specifically mentioned. Some of these rag pickers
were supposed to have made enough money at their trade to
buy land in the "West" and become successful
- How many people actually lived at 88-90 Sheriff st.?
Did the move west, and if so where?
The press reported:
The censuses show:
- January 1853 - 300 rag picker to a house - a colony of 300 moved to the West "last year" =
- April 1853 - 50 families in one large building - a colony of 300 moved to the West in "last year"
- 1857 - 50 families to a building
- 1857 July - 88 Sheriff, 40 rag pickers, 90 Sheriff street, 50 rag pickers
- 1858 - "hundreds" at 88 - 90 Sheriff Street
- 1865 - 32 apartments, 128 families, 60 adults and 60 children
1878 - Hundred families comprising 400 to 500 people - migration to the West,
not necessarily as a group
Where are the 40 or 50 families and hundreds of people who
were supposed to live at these addresses?
- At 88 Sheriff - 3 families - baker, grocer, tailor- total 14 people
- At 90 Sheriff 12 families - all laborers and one shoemaker - total 39 people
- 88 Sheriff 4 families - 2 laborers and 2 rag pickers
- total 19 people
- 88 Sheriff 7 families total 28 people - bier saloon, shoe maker,
house framer, 3 laborer, and a washerwoman.
- 90 Sheriff 4 families total 19 people - grocer, laborer, carpenter, tailor
Not available for Manhattan.
- 88 Sheriff 27 families - 174 people - 2 rag pickers
grocer, clerk, pedlar,
2 blacksmiths, musician, 8 laborers, 2 shoemaker, feed store, 2 washerwomen, carman
- 90 Sherriff 20 families - 58 people -
8 laborers, locksmith, washerwoman sigar maker & dealer in bottles. In a
duplicate count of the rear of 90 Sheriff
there were 5 rag pickers and a scavenger
A Federal census was taken in 1890. The city of New York felt that the census did not
correctly reflect the population of the city and as a consequence took a census of their own in the fall
of 1890. Known as the Police Census (because it was taken by
members of the Police department) it recorded 13% more people than the Federal census.
If we apply the same difference of count to 88- 90 Sheriff in the 1850 census
we get a 60 people instead of
53. Hardly hundreds! To get a mere 106 the census would have to be off by 200 percent.
A principle purposes of the census was to make a count of all the people. Could the count
be so skewed?
It is very hard to know where the writers of the articles got there statistics.
Were they making them up for dramatic impact? Did someone start with a figure and the rest just follow suit?
What was happening here?
The July 1857 is closest to the number of actual people reported in the
building, but you can hardly count infants as rag pickers. The 1865 is suspect not only for
the total number but the split of the number into 60 adults and 60 children.
The families in these building were heavy on small children.
There were rag pickers and bone dealers at Sheriff street as indicated by the 1855 census
and the 1856 City Directory connected with the Schneider family. However, even if it is assumed that all of
the laborers were actually rag and bone men it still would not reflect
how 88 and 90 Sheriff street were written about in the press.
1860 census takers were paid two cents per person reported. Jason Gauthier of the History
Staff at the U.S. Census Bureau in reply to my question: "Were the 1860 census
takers paid a certain sum for each name they put in the
official return? If so, how could this have effected an accurate census
"Census enumerators in 1860 were U.S. marshals and their assistance.
time, they were paid per person/household enumerated. As you can imagine,
this could lead to dishonesty given that the more people enumerated meant
an increased paycheck. This was an ongoing problem that by the early 20th
century was given the name "curbstoning." The term refers to enumerators
sitting "on the curb" and filling out census schedules with assumed or
fictitious information without actually visiting the households. It saved
the enumerator time, meant a shorter workday, and an increased paycheck."
In light of this, I would expect a higher number of people
reported, rather than a lower number of people reported at 88 - 90 Sheriff Street.
Did The Rag Pickers Go West? And, if so, where did they go?
The 1853 it was stated that a colony of 300 German rag pickers had
moved to the west to settle on farms. This was supposed to have occurred in the spring of
1852. There were several references over a period of time to the rag pickers moving west.
The rag pickers were reported to be at 88 and 90 Sheriff street in July and August, 1856.
They were still reported to be there in 1857, 1858 and 1865.
Jacob Riis, the social reformer, states:
"The Sheriff Street Colony of rag-pickers, long since gone, is an instance in point. The
thrifty Germans saved up money during years of hard work in
squalor and apparently wretched poverty to buy a township in a
Western State, and the whole colony moved out there
in a body. There need be no doubt of their thriving there."
I have not found anything concrete about this
western migration of the rag pickers.
In fact, the most "accused" of the Sheriff Street "rag pickers", the Schneider (Snyder)
family, stayed exactly where they were and were still there
when the Goehle family arrived at 88 Sheriff Street circa 1890.
Footnote in How the other Half Lives, by Jacob Riis
Social reformers of the time were horrified by the conditions of many of the
immigrant families in New York City. All sorts of efforts were made to improve living conditions.
The reformers ideal was to move people from the dirty, crowed, disease ridden, inner city to the clean
fresh air of the American West. In fact, in the post Civil War period
there was a reverse trend occurring, whereby
people from the farms were moving into the industrialized cities.
I am still trying to determine if any of the people who lived at this address
ended up in the "West". Hopefully more research with reveal something concrete
on this subject.
Rag Pickers in Ward 11 in 1860, 1870, 1880 and 1890
The censuses for 1850, 1860, 1880, and 1890 do not show any bone or rag pickers at
88 - 90 Sheriff street.
The 1855 New York State Census and the 1870 Federal Census do
show rag pickers on Sheriff Street. See below.
A True Life Rag Picker's Success
Louis B Mayer, Hollywood studio mogul and
the executive of MGM, was born in Russian circa 1885. The family immigrated to Canada were
his father, Jacob Meir, had a scrap metal business. Later Louis B Mayer had
his own metal juck business in
Boston. The scrap metal business (or junk business) in the early 1900s was not too
different from the rag picking business.
It was a little more up scale in that the scrap metal man had a
horse and cart instead of a dog and cart.
In fact, James Boyle of 90 Sheriff street was listed as a junk store owner in 1851.
Several other residences of 88 - 90 Sheriff street were listed in the directories as "junk" dealers.
90 TO 82 SHERIFF STREET IN THE 1850 CENSUS
Addresses were not listed in this census. The addresses as listed here were determined
by comparisons to other records.
Note: The first of the articles that I found refers to the
rag pickers on Sheriff Street in 1853.
- #511 = 90 Sheriff (by default)
*This is the Schneider family who resided at 88 Sheriff Street for many years.
- Family # 2014, (hard to read Ancestry says Jon Miller: Fits name looks like "Jnals". The ending
is definitely alf or als) Miller, 27, laborer, born Germany,
Cath, 33, born Germany, Chas 6 months, born NY.
- #2015, Fredk Florence 29 laborer, Germany,
Fredrica 37, Germany, Christinia 7 months, New York
- #2016, Charles _ Dietz 35 laborer, born Germany,
Cath 27 born Germany
#2017, Jno Sturr (?) 35, laborer, born Germany,
Margt 35, born Germany, Jon 3 born NY,
Margt 7 months born NY
- John Stun 40 Germany, Mary 34, Jno 13, Cath 10
Eliz 8, _utrick 6, Lucinda 4 all born Germany and Joseph age 1 born NY
- Joseph Snider* 35 (or 56) laborer born Germany, Margaret 48,
Christian 17, clerk
Barbara 7, all born Germany, Jacob 6 born NY
#2020 John Shnap 46 laborer, Germany,
Mary 43, Joseph 6 Mary 3 all born Germany
- #2021 Fredk Comer 30 laborer, Dorothy 25 both born Germany
- #2022 Christopher Beck 31 laborer, born Germany
#2023 John Han (Hau) 30 shoemaker, Magdelena 27, Cath Beck 31 all born Germany
#2024 Philip Smith, 30 laborer, Elizt 30, Mary Anne 10, born Germany, Mary 2 born NY
#2025 Philip Radder 46 laborer Germany and Dorothy 54
- #512 = 88 Sheriff
**Listed as Martin Graffleman, grocer in the 1851 city directory at 88 Sheriff Street.
Margaret Weaver, 31, Germany,
Jno 13, Germany,
Wm 9 Germany,
Ann 6, NY,
Jno 33, baker, Germany.
- #2027 Martin Grofman**, 38 grocer,
Sophia 27, Harry Tompkins 21 clerk,
Ann Grofman 24, Harry Grofman18 all born Germany
- #2028 Wm Wise, 23 tailor,
Magdelena 22 Miller, _As-ler 34 Miller,
Laura 35 all born Germany
- #513 = 86 Sheriff St
***Joseph Thompson boxes listed at 86 Sheriff in the 1851 City Directory
- #2029 Phillip Schwartz, 47 porter house, Elizth 29, Cathre 6
Jno 2 born NY, rest born Germany
- #2030 Joseph Thompson*** 43 trunk maker, Scotland, Sarah 34 Virginia, Louisa 12 NN,
Adalaide Thompson 8 NY Josephine 2 NY,
James Joyce 25 boatman, Sarah Joyce 24 both born NY
- #2030 Mich Fa--mey 30 machinist, Ireland, Cathrn 25, Ireland
- #2032 Ferdnand Ryan 71, painter Germany,
Sodona Ryan 42 Germany
- #2033 Jno Howell 24, Por B --wen born Germany, Margaret 23 born Germany
- #2034 Jno Wright cooper, age 30 Mary 18, both born Germany
- #2035 Mich Ryan 26 "none" NY, Susan 23, NY
- #514 = 84 Sheriff Street
****Charles Kuchne cabinet maker 84 Sheriff in the 1851 city directory.
- #2036, Chas Cuchen****, 38, cabinet maker, Germany,
Emma 33 Chas 10 both born Germany,
Lewis 8 and Bertha 3 born New York
- #2037 Denis Donover***** 43, carpenter, Ireland,
Mary 37, Ireland,
Denis 14, born Ireland, Mary 8 born NY, Jno 5 born NY, Danile (/) 1 born NY
- #2038 Jno Manger 48 cabman, born Ireland,
Mary 46, Mich 25,
____ 23m '--anna 13 all born Ireland
*****Denis Conovan, carman 84 Sheriff Street in the 1851 City Directory.
- #515 = 82 Sheriff Street
******Charles Fitzpatrick physician listed in the 1851 city directory at 82 Sheriff Street
- #2039 Chas Fitzpatrick******, 50, MD $2,300, born Ireland
Margt 33 born Ireland
- James Concklyn,******* 45 shoemaker,
Margt 36, both born Ireland,
Wm 17, pencil caser,
Jane 15, Margt 13, Ellen 8, James 5 Mary 3 all born NY
*******James Cochlan no occupation listed at 84 Sheriff Street in the 1851 directory.
The 1851 Directory
An 1851 City Directory includes the following listings for the east side of
Sheriff Street between Rivington and Stanton:
Klous Brant, grocer (Claus Brunt in the 1850 census) (Not listed 1857 Directory)
Thomas Hughes, painter
Henry Hanly (1857 Not under Hanly or Hanley)
G A Marks, bootmaker
John Nantz, shoemaker
A C Thompson
Phineas Menard, hatter
Charles Fitzpatrick, physician (at 82 Sherriff in 1850 census)
James Cochlan (as Concklyn in the 1850 Census, 82 Sheriff St) (1857 not under Chochlan)
Charles Kuehne, cabinet maker (as Cuchen in the 1850 census 84 Sheriff)
Denis Donovan, carman (as Donover in the 1850 census at 84 Sheriff)
John Murray carman
Joseph Thompson, boxes (at 86 Sheriff in the 1850 Census)
Fredrick Beyer, painter (not listed at 86 Sheriff in 1850)
Martin Graffleman, grocer* (as Grofman in the 1850 census)
James Boyle, iron** (1857 at 24 Mangin street home 53 Broome)
Daniel Ahrensburgh, beer (1857 not under Arnesburgh)
Conrad Raush, barber
Anthony Trastman, locksmith
Jacob Burmer (1857 not under Burmer)
John Snider, bootmaker
John Purtz, tinman
Nicholas Hahn, grocer***
*Grafelman at this address: 1851, 1859, 1860, 1862, 1863 and 1865. See Grafelman below.
**James Boyle at this address: 1856. He lived on Mangin Street.
***Nicholas Hahn was listed in the 1860 census: Ward 11, #-58
family #2157, Nicholas Hahn 23, grocer, born Germany, and Henry Otter 20 "clerke". He was
listed in the 1860 census in the 4th district of ward 7 with a
family, grocer, $1,000 born Hanover.
****John Young was listed in the 1860 Census at 98 Sheriff. Listed as John Jung in the 1859 City directory.
Note: "Christopher Schneider NOT listed.
SHERIFF STREET IN THE 1855 NEW YORK STATE CENSUS
The 1855 New York State census microfilm for Ward 11 Ed #3 which contains
88 - 90 Sheriff street is almost impossible to read.
The census was taken June 4, 1855. It lists a population in ED #3 Ward 11 of 3,433 which includes 764 families in
189 dwellings. The occupations that I could make out were the usual
carmen, tailors, laborers, seamen, carpenters, and shoemakers. At the end of each ED a list was
made of the deaths in the ED for the year. I cannot make out any of the ages or causes of
deaths for ED#3 but the number of deaths was 76.
I could not make a complete search for the rag pickers because of the difficulty
reading the pages.
However I did find the following group of rag pickers on what is surely Sheriff Street:
Dwelling #89 a wooden building 3 families including: Jacob ____
age either 54 or 34 and his wife either 50 or 30
who were ragpickers.
- Dwelling #90, a wooden building, 1 family: Jacob Mars, age 28 born Germany, rag picker.
John Mars, brother, age 26 born German and
William Bour-- age 45, no occupation and no ditto mark, his wife Catherine, age 4-,
Catherine 26, Conrad, 24, Charlotte (?) 17, Margaret 12, and Jacob (?) age 8 and
Charlotte _______, age 56 cousin
- Dwelling #91, a wooden building, contained 4 families, 2 rag pickers and 2 laborers:
- Joseph Raymone age 39, rag picker,
---line 28 wife, John child and --- child
- John _ Worrter age 41 labourer and his family
- Christopher Snider* age 55 laborer, Margaret wife age 52,
Frederica daughter age 10, Barbara 12, Jacob age 10
- Michael ___ rag picker, and his family wife Barbara, child Margaret, Margaret --- boarder and
---- same last name age 1
- "Christian Schneider" was listed in the 1855-56 NYC Directory
as "bones", 88 Sheriff. Christopher Snider and Christain Schneider are one and the
same. Snider is an accepted spelling variation for Schneider. The names, Christopher,
Christian and Cris were all used for this individual.
the Schnieder family below.
- 5 rag pickers who labeled themselves as such.
- In 1850 there were 12 families in the same building with the Schneider family, which could
indicate that this census was underreported. However, there were only 4 families listed at this address in 1860.
88 SHERIFF STREET 1859/1860
The 1856 article decrying the state of 88 Sheriff Street listed
"Christian Snyder" as a a part owner and made an oblique reference to " Hans Snyder".
Clean up was attempted in 1858, but the address was still being vilified in 1865.
The 1859 New York City directory shows
"Christian Schenider" grocer at 88 Sheriff Street. There is no appropriate listing for Hans (or
Schneider and/or Snyder.
John Schneider is listed on page 102 in the 2nd Division of the 11th Ward in the 1860
No addresses are given. I checked a few of the neighbors in the 1860 census and found:
I believe, despite the lack of address in the in the 1860 census, that John Schneider, grocer,
was the "notorious" owner/landlord at 88-90 Sheriff Street.
George Eisenhauer at 82 and
Jacob Wolf at 96 Sheriff nicely bracket what was clearly includes
88-90 Sheriff Street. The dwellings are numbered 169 through 176 (8 dwellings) in the order of the
house visited (not necessarily corresponding to street address).
That would cover nos. 82, 84, 86,
88, 90, 92, 94, and 96 (8 dwellings). I am not entirely certain which # corresponds to which
address other than to say that
dwelling # 169 appears to be 82 Sheriff and # 176 appears to be no 96 based on the
corresponding listings in the 1859 City directory.
George Eisenhauer, "house painter", in the 1860 census on page 100 of the 2nd Division of Ward 11.
George Eisenhauer, "plasterer", was listed at 82 Sheriff street in the 1859 NYC Directory.
- John Andress age 66 "laborer" born Bavaria, in the 1860 census on page 101 of the
2nd Division of the 11th Ward. John Andres, "rags" 88 Sheriff Street in the 1859 directory
- Jacob Wolf, 'bier saloon", in the 1860 census on page 104 of the 2nd division of Ward 11.
Jacob Wolf, "liquors" was listed at 96 Sheriff street in the 1859 NYC Directory
What unfolds in the 1860 census is a slightly more benign
image than the one portrayed
in the press.
Starting with the 169th dwelling surveyed in the 2nd Division of the 11th Ward
(which I believe represents 82 Sheriff Street) and ending with the 176th
dwelling counted (which I believe represents 94 Sheriff street)
Number of dwellings at 84 Sheriff Street in 1860: 6
- #169 = 82 Sheriff Street *George Eisenhauer was listed at 82 in the 1859 City directory.
Number of dwellings at 82 Sheriff Street in 1860: 8
- Jacob Heise, age 28, vender, $300, born Hesse Darmstadt, Catherine age 24,
born Hesse Darmstadt, Catherine age 2 born New York
- George Eisenhauer* age 58, house painter, $400, born Hesse Darmsstadt,
Elizabeth age 41 born Bavaria,
Nicholas, age 25, guilder, $500, born Hesse Darmstadt,
John age 16 guilder $50, born Hesse Darmstadt, Elizabeth age 11 born Hesse Darmstadt
Passport Application: Nicholas
Eisenhauer born Furth in Hesse Darmstadt, Germany, 16 October 1834, naturalized citizen of the US,
June 18, 1857 court of Common pleas City of New York, 11 March 1887,
age 52, years, 5 ft 11 inches, blond hair,
1RS Tax record: Nichaols Eisenhauer, 134 6th street, income under $5,000, value $519, tax
- Philipp Stelz age 47 tailor $300,
Elizabeth age 49, Anna E age 21, Charles age 20, "segar maker" $20,
Madeline, 18 soap maker, George age 16, guilder, Philip age 12,
apprentice segar maker Peter 11,
Mary 7 and John 5,
all born Hesse Darmstadt
- John Keich age 39 saw filer $200, Bavaria,
Matilda age 40, Bavaria,
Barbara 15, tasel maker New York
Rosa, 14, Mary 5, Eliza 3, John 7 months
Children born New York
- Lena Rohma age 34 midwife $200 born Hesse Darmstadt,
Catherine age 13, William age 12, Lena age 8, Mathew 3 Elizabeth age 8 months Eva
Schellensher, nurse, age 68 born Hesse Darmstadt. Children all born New York.
- Philip Bouast age 27 laborer, $200 Bavaria,
Elizabeth age 32, Louise age 3, Caroline age 6 months. Wife and children born New York
- Jacob Miller, age 33, shoe maker $200 Wurtenberg, Catherine age 29 Wurtemburg,
Henry age 6, Catherine age 4
Mary age 2
John age 3 months all born NYC
- John Trumell age 50 laborer $100, Ireland, Eliza age 46 Eliza age 20, Thomas age 18, carman,
Jane 15, "tailoress", Mary A 13 Robert P 6 all born Ireland
Occupation at 82 Sheriff in 1860: vender, house painter, 2 guilders, tailor,
cigar maker, soap maker, saw filer, tasel maker, midwife, nurse,
shoemaker, carman, tailoress, and 2 laborers.
Number of people at 82 Sheriff in 1860: 50
Nationalities: German (Hesse Darmstadt, Bavaria & Wurtenberg), Irish (1), born New York
- #170 = 84 Sheriff Street **John Andress was listed at 88 Sheriff street in the 1859
Directory, but people moved around and the numbering make more sence
- Nicholas Ireack (?) age 56, tailor, $70 Bavaria,
John Andress** age 66, laborer, $70 Bavaria, Elizabeth Andres age 40, Mary age 3 all born
- Elizabeth Echardt age 50 $400 born Hesse Darmstadt,
Ludwig age 20 tailor, Henry age 14 carver, Charles age 12 all born Hesse Drmnstadt
- Peter Heickenbien age 28 shoemaker $100 born Hesse Darmstadt.
Eva 30 born Bavaria, Barbara age 3 born NY
- Adam Wright age 23, carman $50, born France, Anna age 26, born Prussia,
John age 3 born NYMichael Strencher age 23 carman $200 Bavaria,
Margaret age 20 born Hesse Darmstadt
- Adam Reikmbier age 37 carpenter $100 Bavaria, Anna age 36 Bavaria,
Margaret 3 NY,
Anna 2 NY
Occupation at 84 Sheriff in 1860: 2 tailor, laborer, carver,shoemaker,
2 carmen and a carpenter.
Number of people at 84 Sheriff in 1860: 20
#171 = 86 Sheriff
Number of dwellings at 86 Sheriff Street in 1860: 4
- Slavin Byrne age 30 laborer $100 Ireland.
Mary age 28, Ireland, John age 7, Elizabeth age 4, Thomas age 2
- Michael Sullivan age 35 carman$600, Ireland
Catherine 33 Ireland, Ellen 8, John 5, Daniel 2 Patrick H 4 months all born New York
- William Logan 24 carman Ireland, Margaret 23 Ireland, George 1 NY
- John McCullen 35 carman $200 Ireland, Ellen 31 Ireland Robert 11 NY
Occupation at 86 Sheriff in 1860: laborer, 3 carman
Number of people at 86 Sheriff in 1860: 17
#172 = 88 Sheriff Street
Number of dwellings at 88 Sheriff Street in 1860: 7
- George Gernand age 42 bier saloon $50, Hesse Darmsdadt,
Elizabeth age 40, Jacob age 17, clerk, Adam age 14 guilder all born Hesse Darmstadt
- George Wolft age 50 shoe maker $300 Bavaria,
Christine age 48, born Bavaria John carman age 19, born Bavaria,
Elizabeth, 16, straw hats, born Bavaria, Caroline age 13 born NY,
Faldeen 8 born NY
- Andrew Teacker (?) house framer$100, Bavaria, Barbara 47,
Bavaria, Barbara 6, New York
- Michael Kroupp 46 laborer $200 Bavaria,
Mary age 36 Bavaria,
Mary 9, Lena 7 George 4, Louis 2 all born NY
- Christine Brower 25 washerwoman Hesse Darmstadt,
Anna 1 New York,
Louisa 4 months all born New York
- William Moss 46, laborer $200 Bavaria, Susan 36 Bavaria, Henry age 10 NY
- Bastian Edingger 30, laborer $15 Bavaria,
Christopher 20 Bavaria
Occupation at 88 Sheriff in 1860: beer salon, shoe maker, carman, straw hats,
house framer, washerwomen and 3 laborers.
Number of people at 88 Sheriff in 1860: 28
Note: NONE of the people who were at 88 Sheriff in 1860 were still there in 1870.
George Gernand was listed "beer, 82 Sheriff.
George Wolf (Wolft), Andrew Teacker, Michael
Kroupp, Christine Brower, William Moss, and Bastian Edinger were not listed in the 1869 City Directory.
#173 = 90 Sheriff Street
***This is the infamous landlord/owner of 88-90 Sheriff Street.
John Schneider*** age 27, grocer $75. Wurtenberg,
Caroline age 26 New York
John E 5, William H 2, Charles 1, Jacob 15 months
- George Erold 40 laborer $100, Bavaria, Elizabeth 50, Bavaria.
- Charles Noure age 38 carpenter $50 Bavaria, Barbara 27, Bavaria, Dorada 7 NY
Frederick 3 NY
- Frederick Geoble 30 tailor $50 Bavaria, Madeline 34,
Bavaria, Madeline 10 Bavaria, Frederick 4 NY, Margaret 3 NY,
John 11 months NY Catherine 11 months NY.
Number of dwellings at 90 Sheriff Street in 1860: 4
Occupations at 90 Sheriff Street in 1860: grocer, laborer, carpenter, tailor
Number of people at 90 Sheriff in 1860: 19
Note: NONE of the people who were at 90 Sheriff in 1860 were still there in 1870.
John Schneider had moved to 88 Sheriff.
Charles Noure, and Frederick Geoble were not listed in the 1869 City Directory.
#174 = 92 Sheriff ??
Number of dwellings at 92 Sheriff Street in 1860: 7
- Henry Grafelmann 28 grocer, $300,
Hanover, John Vonerleath 26 clerk Hanover,
Note: Martin "Graffleman" grocer was listed at 88 Sheriff Street in the 1851 NYC Directory.
- Jacob Teack (?) 64 laborer $50 Wurtenburg.
Rosa, 60, Wurtenbery,
- Joseph Foin 26 waiter, $100 Bavaria, Barbara 23,
Joseph Freighman, 45 laborer $75 Bavaria,
Barbara 33 Bavaria,
John 8, Joseph 6
Mary 3 Eva 7 months, children born NY.
- John Seighef, 46 shoe maker $100 Bavaria
Catherine 44 Bavaria,
Rosa 17, hoop skirt maker Bavaria, Michael 12, NY
- John Glauss, 26 butcher, $200, Wertemberg
Christine 24 Wurtemberg
- Francis Sell 41 exchange office $100 Bavaria, Feresa 38 Eliza 10 Henry Gaueman 24 tailor all born Bavaria
Occupations at 92 Sheriff Street in 1860:
grocer, clerk, waiter, laborer, shoe maker, hoop skirt maker, butcher, exchange officer and
Number of people at 92 Sheriff in 1860: 22
#175 = 94 Sheriff
Number of dwellings at 92 Sheriff Street in 1860: 5
Philip Reicker 50 house carpenter, $300 Wurtemberg,
Margaret 46, Wurtemberg, Jacob 14 segar maker, Wurtemberg, Bena 12, Wurtemberg,
Christine 7, NY, Henry 6 NY, Catherine 4 NY, Jacob Yearck 69, laborer, Wurtemberg
- Charles Hoeats, 52, exchange officer $1,000, Wurtemberg,
Frances 49, Wurtemberg, William 14, Wurtemberg, Christopher Schmidt 22, Wurtemberg,
segar maker, Margaret
Beinerbach age 32, servant, Bavaria
- Francis Kainey, 55, $25, Physician, Bavaria
- John Seabach 51, $25, carpenter Bavaria,
Catherine 53, Bavaria, John, 32, segar maker, Bavaria
- Frederick Vurfer 40 baker $500 Bavaria,
Sarah 37 Bavaria,
Charles 22 baker, Hanover
Occupations at 92 Sheriff Street in 1860:
house carpenter, loborer, exchange officer, servant, physician, carpenter,
2 "segar" makers and 2 bakers
Number of people at 92 Sheriff in 1860: 20
Nationality: Wurtemberg, Bavaria, Hanover
#176 = 96 Sheriff Street
Jacob Wolf* age 44 bier saloon, $1,500 Bavaria, Agnes, 45, Barbara 17, dress maker Bavaria,
Margaret 14, Bavaria,
Jacob 12, NY, Agnes 7, NY, Frederick 1 NY,
Jacob Yearck 69 laborer Wurtemberg
Jacob and his wife immigrated in 1855: Jacob Wolf, age 39, Agnes age 40,
Elisah 18, Marie 17, Barbara
12, Margaret 9, Jacob 7, Johann 6 Agnes 3, -nath 3 male, Elizabeth age 4 form Baden, May 21 1855 from Le Harve to New York.
- Jacob Sprange labourer $100, Wurtenberg,
Barbara 23 Bavaria, Henry 2 NY, Charles 3 months NY
- Matthew Leoud 30 bone dealer $1,200, Bavaria,
Matilda 28 Bavaria, Peter 4 NY, Mary 3 months NY
- George Fredmel 30 laborer $100 Hesse
Barbara 30, Bavaria, John 6 NY, George 4, John Kloust 45, laborer $200, Wurtneberg,
Margaret 40 Wurtneberg,
Henry 16, George 14,
Frederic 7, Frederick 5, Adam 1 all born NY
- John Cormann 53 laborer Bavaria, Bernard Cormann 50 Bavaria.
* Listed in the 1859 NYC Directory at 96 Sheriff street, liquors
#177 = 98
Michael Heild 52, laborer, $100, Wurtemberg,
Mary 51, Wurtemberg,
Peter, 12, New York
Adam Overmill 45 laborer Wurtemberg,
Catherine 40 Wurtemberg,
Adam 10 New York
John Haun 38, segar maker $200 Hesse Darmstadt, Eliza 34 Hesse Darmstadt
- John, Young*, 50 grocer, $2,000, $800, Hesse Darmnstadt,
Christine 50, Hesse Darmstadt, Catherine 8 New York, Christine Schafer 18 hoop skirt maker,
- Henry Bosser age 45, $100 Bavaria no occupation listed, Margaret, 45, Bavaria,
Peter 14, Bavaria, Margaret 10, New York
- Adam Leoud, 49 laborer, Bavaria, Catherine 62, BavariaChristine Mensing 32, scavanger, $200, Wurtemberg,
Margaret 28 Hesse Darmstadt, Louisa 1 New York,
Margaret 1 month New York
* John "Jung" listed at 98 Sheriff in 1865 IRS Tax. John Young Vegetables was listed in the 1851
Listed in the 1859 Directory on Sheriff street:
- Elizabeth Wolf, wid of William h 90 Sheriff
- George J Wolf, carman 98 Sherriff
- Jacob Wolf see above
1859 City Directory from
- There were no rag or bone pickers listed in the censuses at 82, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92,
or 94 Sheriff.
There was a bone dealer at # 96 - Matthew Leoud. It is interesting to note
how much more money personal wealth he had than his neighbors. The only other
person of wealth was Jacob Wolf the bier saloon owner.
- At 98 there was the family of Christine Mensing "scavenger"
- John Andress listed at 84 Sheriff in the 1860 census as a "labourer"
was listed in the
1859 city directory as "rags"
Where are the 28 families with 120 inhabitants running the rag business at 88 & 90
Sheriff street as described in 1865?
While unnumbered, it can be inferred from comparisons to other articles
that Dr. Guernsey was referring to 88 -90 Sheriff street when he wrote in 1865:
"The whole number of apartments is 32, occupied by 28 families, numbering 120 in all,
60 adults and 60 children."
While unnamed, he basically accused John Schneider of being the wealthy owner of the building
and running the rag business.
John Schneider does appear to be the owner of 88 - 90 Sheriff.
The census shows 7 families with 28 people at 88 Sheriff and
4 families with 19 people at 90 Sheriff. A total of 13
48 people. Even if we assume that the 3 "laborers" at 88 Sheriff and the 1 "laborer"
at 90 Sheriff
were rag pickers we have to consider that the others in the building had more mundane
occupations like shoemaker, house farmer, carpenter and tailor.
Censuses can be misleading and not every one was always counted.
There was also a reported clean up at these addresses
in 1856. However, Robert Ernst in Immigrant Life in New York City, in
Appendix 1 says:
"The National census [of 1860], on the other hand,
incurred the greatest
possible liability to false and excessive returns, by paying the canvassers or takers
a certain sum for each name they
put upon their official returns."
This could consequently reflected inflated numbers on Sheriff street in 1860, meaning that there were
possible less people than counted.
What is the true picture here?
Had all the rag pickers moved on by 1860? Were all of the rag pickers hidden from the census taker?
Was Dr. Guernsey harkening back to an earlier instance? Was he perpetuating
an "urban myth"?
THE EAST SIDE OF SHERIFF STREET BETWEEN RIVINGTON AND STANTON IN 1865
The IRS Tax Records give a brief image of the east side of
Sheriff Street in 1865.
The following paid taxes:
1865 IRS Taxes Division 7, District 7 May 1865
- Grob (?), George, 80 Sheriff Street, retail dealer $10
- *Germand, George, 82 Sheriff, dealer liquor, $25 ("Gernand" Geo at 88 Sheriff in 1860)
- *Grafelmann, Henry, 90 sheriff, dealer liquor, $25
(Henry "Grafelmann" at 92 Sheriff in the 1860 census)
- Hoehnlein, Thomas, 86 Sheriff listed twice, income exceeding $600 and retail dealer liquor, $22.25 and$25
- *Jung, John 98 Sheriff, retail dealer $10
(John "Young" (8 Sheriff in 1860)Mearx, Louis 84 Sheriff Street class peddler $15
- Ruhman, Ernst, 94 Sheriff retail dealer $10
- *Schneider, Christopher 88 Sheriff income exceeding $600 and retail liquor $70 and $5
(At 88 Sheriff for years)
- Stor-, John 92 Sheriff cannot read $10
There were buildings at numbers 76, 78, 80, 82, 84, 84, 88, 90, 92, 94, and 96.
The tax records indicate taxable incomes at numbers: 80 retail store, 82 liquor,
84 peddler, 86 liquor, 88 liquor, 90 liquor, 92 cannot read,
94 retail, 98 retail. Four out of the nine businesses were selling liquor.
*On sheriff street in the 1860 census.
88-90 SHERIFF STREET IN THE 1870 CENSUS
This indicates an additional 7 families (not an additional 13 families) and
brings the total at 88 Sheriff in 1870 to 28 families.
- 88 Sheriff, page 48 Ward 11, District #4, #55,
In August 2011 Tom Sullivan wrote that he had found his ancestor
Pauline Munk at 88 Sheriff Street.
She is listed at "rear 88 Sheriff Street, but bordering on Stanton"
22nd District, 11 Ward, page 55:
- John Schneider**, age 38, grocer, $1,600 (value of real estate) $500
(value of person property) Bavaria, Carole 26, NY,
John 15, school, NY,
Wm 12 school, NY, Edw 6, Carl ? 3, Fred 2, ______ 3
- Henry Dreitfred age 20, clerk Bremen
- Chas Forster, 65, pedlar, Bavaria
- Christ Miller 42, blacksmith, $150 (vpp) Bavaria,
Anne 33, Saxony, Fred 5, NY,
Elsie 3, NY,
Kate 1 NY, John 3 months NY
- Chas Koper 45 musician NY,
Mary 42 NY,
Chas 19 NY
- Jos Zelhan laborer, $150 (vpp) Bavaria,
Belle 33 Bavaria,
Lena 9, Ann 7, Phillip 3,
Kate 1 all born NY
Francis Miller**, 30, blacksmith $150, Baden, May 22, Baden,
Aug 2 and Kate 6 mos. born NY
- Philip Otz 26 labourer $200, Baden,
Elise 43, Baden,
Louise 12, school, Carolyn 12 school
Bette 4 children born NY
- Schanhard Fred 31, goldsmith, $250 vpp), Wurtenberg, Anne 30,
Wurtenberg, Ida 9 and Lina 7 both borh NY
- Sch-venger, John 43, labourer, $100 Bavaria,
Kate 32, Bavaria, Kate 10,
Bette 8, John 5 all born NY
- Mann, Paul 40, shoemaker, $200, Saxony,
Wma (female) 42 Saxony
- Von ash ---- 53 "feet" [feed?] store Amise,
Elise 39 Curhessen
- Sabben Christ 41 shoemaker $200, Wurtenburg,
Elisi 30 Prussia, Fretz 12 school Mary 10 school John 8 children all born NY
- Serfert, Mary laborer $600 ??, Bavaria, Johann 62, Wurtenburg
- Heidemach Car 37, Washwoman, Wurtenburg,
Fred 11 school NY
Schneiner, Jos, 80 France, Elise 76 France,
Mary 40 washwoman France
- Munk, Caspar 58 labourer, Wurtenburg,
Pauline 12 school, born Wurtenburg, Wma "F" [female] born NY, 8 Mary 7 born NY
- Paul, Frank 40 Carman, Bavaria,
Lena 30 France, Mary 13 school, Mich 1 children born NY
Sanday, Mary 60 labourer Bavaria,
John 22 segar maker NY
- Moris, Peter 43 labourer, Bavaria,
Ann 50, Wurtenburg
- L-tt, John, 53 labourer, Baden,
Lisi 50 Baden,
Mary 19, servant, Baden,
Amelia, 16 chair maker, NY,
Franca 15 servant, NY,
Bette 12 school, Bev ?? 9
This was recorded in the "2nd enumeration" of the 1870 census.
Some cities claimed to have been undercounted and the census bureau did a recount between December 1870 and January 1871.
At the Rear of 88 Sheriff Street were 13 families, several
of them were already listed
in the original count. I have marked them with *. Despite some
strange differences in spelling and
the names and ages of several of the children, it is clear that the same
families are represented. It is actually a perfect example of the
casualness with which much of the census was taken.
- *Snyder, John age 40, grocer, born Germany, Carrie age 40 keeping house, born
John age 15,
Wm age 13, Edward, age 11
Emelia age 9 Geo age 7, children all born NY
John Schneider, age 38, grocer, $1,600 (value of real estate) $500 (value of person property) Bavaria, Carole 26, NY, John 15, school, NY, Wm 12
school, NY, Edw 6, Carl ? 3, Fred 2, ______ 3
- *Miller, Christopher age 40 blacksmith, Ann age 30, keeping house,
Fredrich age 5, Eliza age 3
Kate age 2 and John age 1, parents born Germany kids born NY.
Christ Miller 42, blacksmith, $150 (vpp) Bavaria, Anne 33, Saxony, Fred 5, NY, Elsie 3, NY, Kate 1 NY, John 3 months NY
- Zimmerman, Gottlieb age 50 tassil maker
Mary age 40, keeping house,
John age 14, parents born Germany John born NY
Zellhan, Joseph, 40, Brick yard, born Germany,
Barbara, 30, Kate 9, Eliza, 8, Ann, 3
Note: I did not count them in my original tally of people living in the building..
- *Miller Frank age 30 iron worker
Margh age 20 keeping house
Marta age 2, Kate age 1 parents born Germany children born NY
Francis Miller, 30, blacksmith $150, Baden, May 22, Baden, Aug 2 and Kate 6 mos. born NY
- Rear 88, *Steinhart Fred age 40 iron worker, Ann age 30 keeping house,
Ida age 8 Lena age 9 parents born Germany children born NY
Schanhard Fred 31, goldsmith, $250, Wurtenberg, Anne 30, Wurtenberg,
Ida 9 and Lina 7 both borh NY
- Rear 88, *Hood Philip age 40 sugar house Eliza age 40 keeping house
Louisa age 13,
Caroline age 12
Geo age 8 Barbara age 4,
parents born German children born NY
Philip Otz 26 labourer $200, Baden, Elise 43, Baden, Louise 12, school, Carolyn 12 school Geo 7,
Bette 4 children born NY
- Rear 88, *Mann Wm age 40 shoemaker
Pauline age 40 keeping house both born Germany
Rear 88, Mann, Paul 40, shoemaker, $200, Saxony, Wma (female) 42 Saxony
- Rear #88 - Sevetser John age 40 salt factory
Kate age 30 keeping house,
Barbara age 9
John age 4 Kate age 10 parents born Germany kids born NY
The 1869 Directory New York City Directory listed 4 people who lived at 88 Sheriff
- Boos, John, waiter
- Finhenauer, Adam, skewermkr
- Mueller, Francis, smith**
- Schneider, John C, grocer**
Francis Mueller and John Schneider were listed at this address in the 1870 census.
I did not find John Boos or Adam Finhenauer in the 1870 census in NYC.
I did not find Henry Dreitfred, Chas Forster, Christ Miller (Mueller),
Chas Koper, Jos Zelhan, Philip Otz,
Fred Schanhard, John Sch-venger, Paul Mann, Von ash, Christ Sabben,
Mary Serfert, Car Heidermach, in the 1869. Other names were too common or incomplete.
Like 88 Sheriff Street, the rear of 90 Sheriff street was counted twice.
Listed in Ward 11, District 22 ""90 Sheriff Street but bordering on Stanton"
in the "2nd enumeration" were 14 families.
9 of them were duplicate listings.
I have marked them with*. Despite some strange differences in
spelling and the names and ages of several of the children, it is clear
that the same families are represented. It is actually a perfect
example of the casualness with which
much of the census was taken.
- Eirich, Nic**, 66, labourer, Bavarian, Louise 54, Curhesse,
Phillip 6, NY
Note: Listed as a tailor in the 1869 Directory
- Lang, Jac** 58, labourer, Bavaria
Note: Listed as Lange, junk, in the 1869 Directory
- Bertral, Jos**, 67, labourer, France,
Carolin 40, France,
Jos 11, Kate 3,
Bette 3 months, all born NY.
Note: Listed as Bertrand, laborer, in the 1869 Directory
Miller, Hen**, 50, labourer, Hessedarm,
Mina 40, Hessedarm, Louise 7, NY
- Elhaver, Fred, 45, locksmith, Wurtenburg, Elise 32, Saxony
- Phillips, Martin 24, labourer,
Mary 22, Kate 9 months, Mart 2 all born NY
- Spitzfaden, Jac** age 70, labourer, Bavaria
Note: Listed as junk in the 1869 Directory
- Roth, Antony 70 Bavaria
- Miller, "Ferd"**, 43 labourer, Saxony,
Elisa 34, Saxony, Chas 10, school, Saxony,
Carolin 8, Geo 3 Mary 1 all born NY.
Note: Listed as Mueller, carpenter, in the 1869 Directory
- Greimer, Elise 46, washwoman Bavaria,
Francis 11 school, Fred 17 office boy, Mich 15 careboy, Mag-- 13, school, Rosia 9 all born NY
Fellings, Bette, 45, Labourer, Wurtenburg
- Wohlfarth, Gu- 41 sigarmaker Prussia
- Schaffenberg, John 53 labourer, Prussia
Punlch (?) Thora 45 female, labourer, Prussia
- Boly, Henry 38, dealer in bottels $200, Hessen Darm.,
Carolin, 40, Bavaria,
Halle (female), 12 school NY,
Ben 10, Fanny 8, Wm 3 Bette 9 months all born NY
Note: Henry "Boley" was at 92 Sheriff street in 1880:
Boley, Henry, 47, bottle dealer, Carrie 50, Benjamin, 20, bottles, Fannie 13, vest maker, Pauline 9 at school.
To add to the confusion in July 1024 I came upon yet another enumeration of 90 Sheriff street
rear which included the following families:
- *"Frich", Nicholas age 70 tailor, Louisa age 40 keeping house, Philip age 7
Adults born Germany child born NY
Eirich, Nic, 66, labourer, Bavarian, Louise 54, Curhesse, Phillip 6, NY
Note: Listed as a tailor in the 1869 Directory
- *L-ng Jacob age 50 rag picker
Eliza age 50 keeping house Theodore age 24 brewer Lebald age 20 brewer,
all born Germany
Lang, Jac 58, labourer, Bavaria
Note: Listed as Lange, junk, in the 1869 Directory
- *Barthon Joseph age 70 laborer
Caroline age 40 keeping house Joseph age 12
Kate age 5 Babett age 2 Adults born France, children born NY
Bertral, Jos, 67, labourer, France, Carolin 40, France, Jos 11, Kate 3, Bette 3 months, all born NY.
Note: Listed as Bertrand, laborer, in the 1869 Directory
- *Miller, Adam age 60 Scavanger
Louisa age 60 keeping house
Louise 9, adults born Germany, child born NY
Miller, Hen, 50, labourer, Hessedarm, Mina 40, Hessedarm, Louise 7, NY
- *Miller Fred age 50 laborer Eliza age 40 keeping house,
Chas age 11 Caroline age 8, Geo age 4 Mary age 2 adults
and Chas born Germany rest born NY
Miller, "Ferd", 43 labourer, Saxony, Elisa 34, Saxony, Chas 10, school, Saxony, Carolin 8, Geo 3 Mary 1 all born NY
- *Spitsgogan, Jacop age 70 rag picker
Spitzfaden, Jac age 70, labourer, Bavaria
Note: Listed as junk in the 1869 Directory
- *Rhode, Anton age 70 rag Picker
Roth, Antony 70 Bavaria
- *Cramer Eliza age 50, born Germany, Frits age 17,
Micha age 16,
Lena age 13
Frank age 11
Rosa age 9, children born NY
Greimer, Elise 46, washwoman Bavaria, Francis 11 school, Fred 17 office boy, Mich 15 careboy, Mag-- 13, school, Rosia 9 all born NY
- *Sharpenburg John age 50 rag picker born Germany
Schaffenberg, John 53 labourer, Prussia
- English, John age 60 Rag picker born Germany
- Filingen Dorotha age 50 rag picker born Germany
- Van -ish, Joseph feed store Eliza age 40, both born Germany
- Sappler Christian age 40 stove maker Eliza age 30
Fred age 12
Mary age 11 John age 9, adults born Germany children born NY
- Fredrick Jacob age 80 retired born Germany
- Rear 90, Shriner Joseph age 70, Eliza age 70 Mary age 40 all born France
- Rear #90, Dolle Frank age 30 cartman, born Germany,
Lena age 30 keeping house born France
Mary age 14
Michael age 2, children born NY
- Rear #90, *Munk, "Kasper" [listed under Kooper by Ancestry], age 60 rag picker, born Germany, Mary age 14, born Germany,
Pauline age 9, born New York, Wm age 8 "M" [male] born New York
Munk, Caspar 58 labourer, Wurtenburg, Pauline 12 school, born Wurtenburg, Wma "F"
[female] born NY, 8 Mary 7 born NY
- Rear #90, Sontage Sophia age 60 keeping house born Germany
- Rear #90, *Mauer Peter age 60 sugar house
Ann age 50 keeping house, both born Germany
Morris, Peter 43 labourer, Bavaria, Ann 50, Wurtenburg
- Rear #90, Wiest John age 50 rag picker born Germany, Eliza, age 50, keeping house,
This indicates 5 additional "families" with 10 additional people for a total of 52
The 1869 Directory New York City Directory listed 21 people who either lived or
worked at 90 Sheriff
*I did not find Frederick Alhaeven, Jacob Gruenig, Caroline Heidenwag, Christian Sapper,
Bongratz, John Seiffert, Sophia Sondet, George Stoeren, or Michael Sypher in the 1870
census in Ward 11.
Alhaeven Frederick*, machinist, h r 90 Sheriff
Bertrand Joseph**, laborer, h r 90 Sheriff
Eirich Nicholas**, tailor, h r 90 Sheriff
Gruenig Jacob*, junk, h r 90 Sheriff
Heidenwag Caroline*, wid. Daniel, h r 90 Sheriff
Lange Jacob**, junk, h r 90 Sheriff
Meyer Joseph***, laborer, h 90 Sheriff
Michel Simon***, butcher, 90 Sheriff
Mueller Frederick**, carpenter, b r 90 Sheriff
Mueller Henry**, laborer, h r 90 Sheriff
Sapper Christian*, shoemkr. h r 90 Sheriff
Schmidt Bongratz*, laborer, h r 90 Sheriff
Schmidt Charles***, pedlar, h r 90 Sheriff
Schreiner Joseph***, h r 90 Sheriff
Schultz John***, cabinetmkr. h 90 Sheriff
Seiffert John*, shoemkr. h 90 Sheriff
Sondet Sophia*, wid. Joseph, h r 90 Sheriff
Spitzfaden Jacob**, junk, h r 90 Sheriff
Stoeren George*, laborer, h 90 Sheriff
Sypher Michael*, ornamenter, h 90 Sheriff
Heyneman Joseph, feed, 90 Sheriff, h 250 Seventh****
** Joseph Bertrand, Nicholas Eirich, Jacob Lange, Frederick Mueller, Henry Mueller, and Jacob Spitzfaden were listed
at 90 Sheriff in the 1870 Census. That is 6 out of the 20 who listed
90 Sheriff as their address in 1869.
***Joseph Meyer, Michael Simon, Charles Schmidt, Joseph Schreiner, John Schultz, were
common names. I did not find them in the 1870 censuses because the information I currently have is too vague.
**** His residence was at 250 Seventh Street.
I did not find, Fred Elhaver, Martin Philips, Antony Roth,
Elise Greimer, Bette Fellings, Gu Wohlfarth, John Schaffenberg,
Thora Punlch or Henry Boly in the 1869 city directory.
- 88 Sheriff Street — 1870, 27 families, 174 people - grocer, clerk,
pedlar, 2 blacksmiths,
musician, 8 laborers, 2 shoemaker, feed store, 2 washerwomen, tassil maker,
salt factory worker, 2 Rag pickers [as indicated by the duplicate count in District
22], carman & goldsmith.
In 1860 there were 7 families and 28 people. In 1880 there were 16
families (8 front and 8 rear) with a total of 76 people.
- 90 Sherriff — 1870, 30 families 58
people - 8 laborers, locksmith,
washerwoman "sigar" maker & dealer in bottles.
The duplicate counting of the rear of
90 Sheriff streets does reveal 6 rag pickers and a scavenger.
In fact, everyone living back there with the exception of
the tailor, Nicholas Eireich, the stove maker, Christian Sappler and feed
store worker or owner, Joseph Van -ish, could have been a rag picker.
In 1860 there were 4 families and 19 people.
I could not find 90 Sheriff street in the 1880 census.
88 Sheriff in the 1877 Directory
The 1877 Directory listed the following people at 88 Sheriff:
Alexander, Herman, laborer home rear 88 Sheriff
- Faber, John, laborer, home rear, 88 Sheriff
(In the 1880 census at 88 Sheriff.)
- Fiskel, Joseph cabmkr home rear 88 Sheriff
- Gebhardt, Godfried, smith, home rear 88 Sheriff
- Heck, Joseph shoemaker, home rear 88 Sheriff
- Horch, Casper varnishes 88 Sheriff
- Juda, John tailor, 88 Sheriff
- Krutz, Bernhard, laborer 88 Sheriff
- Miller, Julius, carpenter 88 Sheriff - (In the 1880 census at 88 Sheriff.)
- Rigger, Henry, upholstery, home 88 Sheriff
- Schneider, Jon C, grocer, 88 Sheriff - (In the 1880 census at 88 Sheriff.)
- Schreiber, Conrad, carpenter, home 88 Sheriff
- Sherman, John driver, home 88 Sheriff
90 Sheriff in the 1877 Directory
Benker, John, junk, home rear 90 Sheriff
- Krueger, William, junk home rear 90 Sheriff
- Napp, John railingmakr home rear 90 Sheriff
- Paothner, Fredrick lab home rear 90 Sheriff
- Seifer, John laborer, home 90 Sheriff
- Severin, Todi, feed, 90 Sheriff
88 - 90 - 92 SHERIFF STREET IN THE 1880 CENSUS
This number of families front and back
would indicate that 88 was a four story building in
- 88 Sheriff street front: Page 48 Ward 11, ED 154,
- Schneider, John, 46, grocer, born Germany,
John 24, grocer clerk,
George 10, Cornelius 13,
Lissie 4, Carrie and children born NY, German parentage.
- Schwid, John 32 plumber, Germany,
Maggie 3 months, Christina and children born NY, German parentage.
- Reuman, John 28, painter, Anna 31,
Eva 9, Joe 7 Barbara 5 and Pauline 8 months. All born NY. German parentage.
- Hamelich, Jacob 33 bricklayer,
Kate 33, Kate 7
Ludi--nia 5 months, parents born Germany children born NY.
Cath. "Hammerle", wid Jacob dressmaker 529 E 13th Street, h 513 E 13th st.reet 1891
- Aubach, Casper, 33 cigar boxes,
Lizzie 25, Kate 5, August 2 Anna 4 months, parents born Germany children born NY
- Miller, Leopold, 33, shoemaker,
Minnie 7, Josephine 5,
John 1 parents born Germany children born NY
- Gunbreidh (?) Mary 45, washing,
John 13, Mary 15, Christian 10, Fred 8 mother born Germany children born NY
Two Johns were listed.
- Miller, Julius 56, carpenter,
Julius 24, wire work, Rose, 22 "no occupation",
Emma 20 fringe, Minnie 17 artificial flowers,
Anna 11 school
parents born Germany children born NY
- 88 Sheriff rear, page 49 Ward 11, ED 154
Faber, John 48, home, Germany
Maggie 59, Switzerland
1870 Census: page 44, Ward 11, #51, Family #426,
John Faber, 40, clerk, Bavaria, and his wife "Mary" 50, Swizz,
Bavier, Julie 53, Swiss
Telly, Adolph 31 watchmaker, Germany,
Kate 49, Germany,
Seigfritz, John 50 boarder nails, Prussia
- Kaiser, Jacob 30 blacksmith,
Lizzie 28, Chas 4
Lizzie 4 months, parents born Germany children born NY
Jacob "Keiser", age 37, a German blacksmith of No. 88 Sheriff street, was overcome by
heat during a heat wave
- Shut-mann (?), Fred 39 whitewasher,
Anna 5 parents born Germany children born NY
- Gebert, Godfrey 42, nickel plating,
Ursula 39, John 9, parents born Germany children born NY
Schwearen(?), Rosa 36, widowed, pantaloons,
Frances daughter 11, school, mother born Germany child born NY
- Kaiser, Daniel 40, soap
Fredieu (daughter),1, Carrie 7, school, parents born Germany children born NY
- Kaiser, Chas, 27, shoemaker,
Carrie 1 month, parents born Germany children born NY
8 families with a total of 50 people in the front of 88 Sheriff and
8 families with a total of 26 people in the rear.
90 Sheriff front: I cannot find the front of 90 Sheriff.
90 Sheriff rear: page 47, Ward 11, ED 154
92 Sheriff Street Rear:
- Eudich, John 74, tailor Germany,
Beck, Christopher, 66 no occupation cripple, Germany
- Housner(?), George 65, labourer,
Kate 44, Mary 14, tailoress, Helen 13, tailoress,
Kate 7 home,
parents born Germany children born NY
- Weisnt (?) Lizzie 53, widow, picks rags born Germany.
Amelia 26, George 19, peddler,
Knapp, John age 25, son in law, steel roller,
Barbara Knapp, 23 daughter,
John 4, Maggie 2, born New Jersey, all other born NY.
Grenado-, John age 50, rag picker born Germany, Sophia age 34,
sister, keep house, born Germany,
Sander, John 35 boarder, chair maker, born Germany
- Jacob, Jack, age 68, "no occupation", born Germany
- King, Lottie age 49 mother, Infant wear" born New Hampshire,
Benj King age 16 son, sect Amer dist telegraph, born NY
- Green, Lizzie, age 54 mother, keep house born Germany,
Fred, age 26, son bartender,
Mike age 24 son, peddler,
Frank, son age 21, peddler, Rose daughter age 19, "no occupation", Kate Bathern age 12 boarder, school,
children all born New York
Note: They were at 90 Sheriff in 1878 and 1890. This is
the Mike and Rose
Green involved in the stabbing incident in 1878, see below.
In June 1872 it was reported in the Evening post that the reamains of a female
infant were found in an ash barrel in front of 2 Watts street by rag picker,
Elizabeth Green of 90 Sheriff street.
In 1875 Fritz Green of 88 Sheriff street went to a bar at 26 Canal for a drink
about 11 o'clock on a Monday night. After he fell asleep in his chair his watch and chain were
pickpocketed. The thief was caught and arrested.
In 1879 Fredrick Green of 90 Sheriff street was accused and arrested for
pickpocketing a gold watch at a picnic at
- Meyer, Gottleib age 35, chair caner, born Switzerland,
Lena age 40, keep house, born Switzerland, Sophia 14,
daughter chair caner, born NY
88-90 SHERIFF STREET IN THE 1880
- Jacob Walters**
Jacob A Hammerle* (listed as Hamelich in 1880 Census)
- John E. Schneider* (son of John Schneider in 1880 census)
- Wm H Schneider* (son of John in 1880 census)
- John Faber*
- John Schneider*
- John Smith, jr.**
- John Reman* (listed as Reuman in 1880 census)
- Julius Muller*
- Charles Kaiser*
- Charles I Miller**
- George Reif**
- Henry Zimmerman**
- John Frech**
- Leopold Muller* (listed as Miller in the 1880 census)
- Andrew Bauer**
* listed at same address in the 1880 census.
** Not listed at same address in 1880 census.
88 -90 SHERIFF STREET IN THE 1890 POLICE CENSUS IN NEW YORK CITY
A US census was taken in the summer of 1890, but unfortunately it burned
before it could be microfilmed. New York city officials felt that the city had been
in the federal census so they took another census in the fall of 1890.
This census was taken by the NYC Police Department.
1877 Directory: Aufmkolk Charles, pedlar, h 364 Third Aufmkolk Ferdinand, jeweler, h 403 Fifth
The family of Peter Goehle was listed at 88 Sheriff Street in the 1890 NYC Police Census.
At least two children of Peter and Wilhelmina Goehle were born at this address, Francesca in
May 1891 and Frank in March 1894.
The 1890 NYC Police Census lists everyone
in the building but does not separate them into family groups and does not list familial
88 Sheriff Street 1890 NYC Census
John Schneider, grocer, born circa 1834, Germany, and his wife,
The Schneiders owned 88 and 90 Sheriff streets. See more on the Schneider family below.
1890 census: John age 56, John age 34, William age 31, Edward age 25,
Cornelis age 21,
Fred age 20, George age 19, Julia age 16, and Lizzie age 13
- Listed as a grocer at 88 Sheriff Street in the 1890 City Directory
- Carl (Charles) Fenske (Fensky), shoemaker, born circa 1845, unknown, wife? Rachel
Charles Fenske and wife (?): Charles age 45, Rachael age 31
Listed as "Carl" Fenske, shoemaker, home 104 Pitt Street in the 1890 City Directory
- Did not find him in other censuses under "Fenske" or Fensky
- Other possible spellings, Fenska, Fenski, Finske, and Finsky
- Charles Beyerkohler (Beyer)*, cigar maker and cigar box maker,
born 1865, Germany, immigrated circa 1873, wife,
Catherine Lindemann born New York of Germany ancestry
Charles "Beyer" and family: Charles age 28, Kate age 25, Minni age 2 and George age 3 months
Note: This family also listed themselves as Beyerkohler. Kate "Beyer"
was the sister of my ancestor Minnie Goehle. See Beyerkohler now or at the bottom of the page.
- Joseph Leimer, plasterer, born Germany circa 1865, died New York 1928,
his wife, Eva born Germany circa 1869.
Joseph "Limer" and family: Joseph age 25, Eva age 21, Emil age 3, and Rosie age 1
- Birth: Born Germany circa 1865
- Immigration: 1881 per census: Josef Leimer
Arrival Date: 28 Mar 1881
Birth Year: abt 1865
Ethnicity/Race: Prussian (German)
Place of Origin: Prussia
Port of Departure: Hamburg, Germany and Le Havre, France
Destination: United States of America
Port of Arrival: New York
Port Arrival State: New York
Port Arrival Country: United States
Ship Name: Suevia
- Marriage: Eva
- Children: From Censuses
- Marcus 1882 (1900 census not in 1890 census)
- Emil (Emile) c. 1887 (1890 and 1910)
- Rosie c 1889 (1890) ✟
Death: Leimer Rosie 1 y Sept
10 1891 31530 Manhattan
- Frank 1892 (not in 1900 in 1910)
- Elizabeth 1897 (1900, 1910)
- New York City Births:
- *Frank C. Leimer 28 Nov 1892 45735
- Raymond Leimer 19 Oct 1895 44934 Nov. 1895.
- *Elizabeth Leimer 20 Nov 1897 48302 Births Reported in November, 1897.
Joseph Leimer 27 Sep 1900 38112 Births Reported in 1900. Borough of Manhattan.
- David Leimer 18 Jun 1901 26070 Births Reported in 1901. Borough of Manhattan.
- Listed as Leimer Joseph, plasterer, h 88 Sheriff, (listed 2 times and
also as Lymer Joseph, plasterer, h 88 Sheriff) in the 1890 City Directory.
- 1890: Sheriff Street
- 1900 Census: 145 Sullivan Street:
Joseph Feb 1865, age 35, M 14 years, born Germany, plasterer, immigrated 1881,
Eva April 1869, 4 children 3 living, born Germany,
Emile May 1887, Marcus No 1882, Lizie Nov 1897 all born NY
1910: Same address, Children, Elizabeth age 12, Frank age 17, Annie age 6,
Frances age 1
1920 Census: 145 Sullivan Street: Leimer, Joseph, age 53,
immigrated 1880, naturalized 1889, janitor on premises,
Eva, age 50, immigrated 1883,
Elizabeth, age 22, -rancher teacher,
Anna. age 15,
Frances, age 11,
- Census records indicate he was born in Germany c. 1865 and immigrated circa 1881
Leimer Joseph J 63 y Dec 9 1928 30338 Manhattan
- George Hageolm or Hagadorn, laborer, born circa 1856, unknown and his wife, Annie, born circa 1862, unknown
George "Hageolm" and family: George age 34, Annie age 28, Olivia age 1, Fredia age -
- The name was listed in the 1890 City Directory at 88 Sheriff Street
as George "Hagadorn" laborer.
- Did not find him in other censuses
- Peter Goehle*, butcher, born 1852, Herrnshiem, Germany, immigrated 1873,
and his second wife, Minnie Lindemann born circa 1861, NYC of German ancestry.
Peter Goehle and family: Peter age 39, Minnie age 29, Peter Jr age 5,
Clara age 3, Katie age 9,
Luisa age 10, Lizzie age 14, Winnie age 1, Katherine Lindemann
age 60. Note: Daughter Mary, twin to brother, Peter Jr., was not listed
but she does show up in the 1900 census.
Note: Peter Goehle was my ancestor.
See Peter Goehle
now or at the bottom of the page
Kate Shilling and daughters, Annie and Carrie
Katie Schilling and children: Katie age 54, Annie age 24, and Carrie age 21
Other possible spelling — Shelling
- Pretty common name at the time and place
- Did not find them in other censuses
- David Smith
David Smith, age 26
Note: The name is too common and there are no other clues to hang onto.
- Frederick Schill (Schull), blacksmith, born Germany circa 1842,
wife Martha, born circa 1848 Germany
Fredrick "Schull" and family: Fredrick age 45 and "Mary" age 42, Fredrick Jr age 25,
John age 22, Annie age 14, Willa (male) age 8, Emma age 6
- Listed as Fredrick "Schill" 88 Sheriff Street, smith, in the 1890
- 1900 Census: 10 East 9th Street,
Shill, Frederick, October 1840, age 59 married 35 years, born Germany, immigrated 1862,
"Martha", wife, Feb 1849, age 51, married 35, children 7, 5 living, born Germany,
Fred V, son born Apr 1864, age 34, New York, coppersmith,
William son, born Mar 1882, age 18, frame maker,
Annie daughter, born May 1876 age 24, paper box,
Emily daughter, born Mar 1884, age 16, Children all born NYC
- John Zahn born circa 1844, Germany and Annie born circa 1839
John Zahn and family: John age 46, Anne age 51, K-mie (?) age 13, Maggie age 11 (?)
Emma "Corn", age 9 months
- I am assuming based on the position of this entry that Emma Corn was living
with the Zahn family
- 1890 City Directory, John Zahn, driver, 88 Sheriff Street
- Philip Granit born c 1852 and wife, Theresa,
Philip Granit and family: Philip age 38, Th-essia age 37, Mary age 2, Annie age 7 months
- Not listed under that spelling in the 1890 NYC Direcroty
- Jacob Kradebuk born circa 1850 and his wife Anne
Jacob Kradebuk and family: Jacob age 40, Mary age 32, Annie age 15, Freddie age 4 Kate age (?),
- Not listed under that spelling in the 1890 NYC Directory
Rachael Biar and Fredrica Aufmkolk (AKA Aufenkolk)
Rachael Biar, age 60, Fredrica "Aufenkolk", age 60
Fredica Aufmkolk was the widow of Charles Aufmkolk
- Rachael Biar not listed under that
spelling in the 1890 NYC Directory
Charles Aufmkolk (AKA Aufenkolk)
and Fredrica Baer
Birth: Circa 1925 Germany
In January 2014 Dr. Michael Auf'mkolk wrote:
Nr. 13, the second persons correct name is:
Frederica Aufmkolk, sometimes misspelled "Aufenkolk", maiden name Baer, born about 1827 in Bavaria, Germany.
New York, New York, City Directory, 1868
She married about 1865 in NYC.
Carl August Christian Friedrich (Charles A.) Aufmkolk, born 1825 in Hildesheim, lower saxony, Germany
who immigrated as "printer" Aug, 26th, 1858 on the ship Ariel from Bremen to NYC.
He followed his brother Ferdinand Aufmkolk who immigrated already in 1853 to NYC.
Charles Aufmkolk died after the 1880 and before 1890 census.
They had two daughters born in NYC Pauline 1866 and Rosa 1868, both mentioned
in the 1880 census.
I don't know what happened to the daughters of this Aufmkolk family.
1872 and 1874: Aufmkolk, Charles, segar maker h 364 Third Av.
1876: Charles Aufmkolk pedlar h 364 Third
1878: Charles "Aufemkolk" pedlar h 364 Third
1879: Charles Aufmkolk pedlar h 364 Third
1880: 364 East Third Street
Charles Aufkolk M 55 Germany, pedlar, Prussia,
Wife, Fredericka Aufkolk F 53 Germany, Bavaria,
Daughter, Pauline Aufkolk F 14 New York, United States
Daughter, Rosa Aufkolk F 12 New York, United States
Sister, Regina Baer F 50 Germany, washing, Bavaria
1880: Directory: Aufenkolk, Charles, pedlar, h 364 Third
1889: City Directory: Frederica Aufenkolk
h r [home rear] 88 Sheriff
widow, Charles Aufenkolk
Publication Title: New York, New York, City Directory, 1889
Also listed in 1889 under Aufmkolk, Ferdinand, jeweler, h 226 E 33rd and Henry varnisher same address
Ferdinand Aufmkolk (1823-1893)
Heinrich Julius Ferdinand (known as Ferdinand) was the brother of
Charles Aufmkolk whose widow lived on Sheriff street.
Information from Michael Amf'mkolk, January 2014
Heinrich Julius Ferdinand Aufmkolk (1823-1893)
1916: November Miss Natalie Ronalds daughter of William B. T. Rolands of
Earle avenue, was married yesterday to Charles Aufmkolk Jr., son of Mr. and Mrs.
Charles Aufmkolk of Bank street, Manhattan, in Christ Episcopal Church, ...
The bridegroom was attended by his brother, Ferdinand Aufmkolk.
The ushers were Hugh and James Ronalds and Gustavo and Otto Aufmkolk.
Heinrich Julius Ferdinand Aufmkolk
Geburt 10. Jan. 1823 Hildesheim, NDS, D
Taufe 07. Feb. 1823 Hildesheim, NDS, D
Tod 16. Sep. 1893 New York City, New York, USA
Marriage: Agnes Schulte
Muunster, NRW, D
Ferdinand immigrated June 09th 1853 in NYC on the Jeverland from Bremen,
asked for an American Passport Aug 07 th 1862,
profession goldsmith, jewler, watch maker, goldsmith.
- Ferdinand D. Aufmkolk
Geburt SEP 1858 New York City, New York, USA
Tod: May 01 1923 NYC
Marriage: Ida C. Scharff
Geburt JUN 1859 Germany, D
Heirat 25. Juni 1896 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 02. Dez. 1930 New York City, New York, USA
- Charles H. Aufmkolk
Geburt Nov 1859 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 07. Juli 1936 Queens, NYC / USA, NY, USA
Annie Aufmkolk 1
Marriage: Annie Scharff
Geburt OCT 1866 New York City, New York, USA
Heirat 16. Aug. 1884 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 06. Dez. 1921 New York City, New York, USA
1900: 133 Third:
Charles Aufmkolk 40, watchmaker,
Annie Aufmkolk 33,
Ferdinand Aufmkolk 15, tailoring trimming,
Gustave Aufmkolk 13,
Charles Aufmkolk 11,
Otto Aufmkolk 9,
Ida Aufmkolk 3,
- Ferdinand Aufmkolk
Geburt 03.Jan 1885 NYC
Jennie M. N.N.
Geburt 1897 New York City, New York, USA Heirat 1921 New York City, New York, USA
Child: Barbara Oct 1927 NYC
- Gustave Aufmkolk
Geburt 10. Okt. 1887 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 10. Okt. 1918 Meuse-Argonne / F
- Charles Aufmkolk
Geburt 21. Aug. 1888 New York City, New York, USA
A. Natalie Ronalds
Heirat 20. Nov. 1916 New York City, New York, USA
- Arthur Aufmkolk
Geburt ABT 1890 New York City, New York, USA
- Otto Aufmkolk
Brooklyn, NY, USA 08.Feb. 1891
Marriage: Nellie Darling born 1894 10 Apor. 1917 died aft 1925
- Betty born aft 1921, Queens ?? died aft 1925
- Otto born 1921 Queens?
Ida Aufmkolk born 04 Sept 1896 NYC,
Tod DEC 1980 Queens, NYC / USA, NY, USA
Gustav Adolph Havemeyer
Geburt 19. Jan. 1896 New York City, New York, USA
Heirat 11. Nov. 1926 New York City, New York, USA
Tod JAN 1977 Queens, NYC / USA, NY, USA
Geburt 14. Okt. 1898 New York City, New York, USA
New York City, New York, US
Marriage: Charles Henry John Baumann
Geburt 23. Juli 1899 New York City, New York, USA
Heirat 10. Maar. 1924 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 09. Jan. 1994 Moravian Manor Lititz, PA
- William born USA
- Mildred born 28 april 1928 Brooklyn
Agnes Aufmkolk 23. Mai 1906 NUC
Tod 16. Apr. 1969 Queens, NYC / USA
Martin F Smith
Geburt 22. Aug. 1888 Heirat 25. Okt. 1952 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 27. Jan. 1966
- Henry Aufmkolk
New York City, New
New York City, New
1862 York, USA
05. Jan. 1943 York, USA
- George Aufmkolk
New York City, New York, USA
Tod 26. Dez. 1922 New York City, New York, USA
Gertrud (Get.) Aufmkolk
Geburt 1865 New York City, New York, USA Tod AFT 1870 New York City, New York, USA
- John Edward Aufmkolk
Geburt 08. Juni 1869 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 12. Okt. 1870 New York City, New York, USA
- Joseph Aufmkolk 25. Apr. 1871 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 12. Sep. 1904 New York City, New York, USA
Tochter Aufmkolk Geburt
19. Aug. 1874 Sunderland, Durham, GB, UK
- Leontine Aufmkolk
New York City, New York, USA
Tod 05. Juli 1900 New York City, New York, USA
Marriage: Friedrich Troebner
Geburt 1868 Hannover, NDS, D
Heirat 22. Dez. 1895 New York City, New York, USA
Tod 20. Mai 1948 New York City, New York, USA
WWI: Gustave Aufmkolk
Death Date: 10 Oct 1918
Cemetery: Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery
Cemetery Burial Plot: Plot B Row 5 Grave 40
Cemetery City: Romagne
Cemetery Country: France
War: World War I
Title: Private, U.S. Army
Service: U.S. Army
Division: 28th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division
Data Source: World War I Honor Roll
New York city Death Index:
Aufenkolk, Joseph age 33 Sept 12, 1904 #31493 Manhattan
Aufinkolk Ferdinand 65 May 1, 1923 #13153 Manhattan
Stefan Kaldrovitz and family: Stefan age 32, Lena age 22, Vilmar age 1, Freddie age -, Tillie age 1
- Not listed under that spelling in the 1890 NYC Directory
Margaret Eakins, age 50
- Not listed under that spelling in the 1890 NYC Directory
Michael Karckain, age 37
- Not listed under that spelling in the 1890 NYC Directory
Simon Kratz age 40 and Amelia age 38
- Not listed under that spelling in the 1890 NYC Directory
*Goehle and related families.
1890 Directory Listings for 88 Sheriff Street
Arnault Herman*, carpenter, h r 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
Autenkolk Frederica*, wid. Charles, h r 88 Sheriff. See #13 in 1890 above.
Dr. Michael Auf'mkolk wrote "the correct name is Aufmkolk, here misspelled Autenkolk" (January 2014)
Behringer Charles*, upholsterer, h r 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
Hagadorn George, laborer, h 88 Sheriff (different spelling)
Heymach Frederick*, carpenter, h r 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
Jaeger Jacob*, mason, h r 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
Leimer Joseph, plasterer, h 88 Sheriff, listed 2 times and also as
Lymer Joseph, plasterer, h 88 Sheriff (listed in the 1890 Police census at this address)
Marz, Herman*, carpenter, h 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
Miller, Charles, J wire, 260 Second, h 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
1900 Census: 295 East 4th Street,
Charles J Miller, Mar 1858, age 42, married 8 years, born New York, German ancestors, wire worker,
Catherine wife Jan 1861, age 38, no children, born New York
Miller, Julius* carpenter h 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
Schill, Frederick smith h 88 Sheriff (in 1890 Police Census at this address)
Schneider, John C grocer, h 88 Sheriff (in 1890 Police Census at this address)
Snyder James* driver, h 88 Sheriff (NOT in police census at this address)
Zahn John driver h 88 Sheriff (in 1890 Police Census at this address)
Note: * Nine out of the fourteen people listed at this address in the 1890 directory were NOT listed at this address in the
1890 Police census.
Those who were listed in both were:
90 Sheriff Street 1890 NYC Census
- George Hagedorn
- Joseph Leimer
- Frederick Shill
- John Schnieder
- John Zahn
- Julius Bernstein
September 1890 The Evening Post: Jacob Bernstien age 17 of No (0 Sheriff was arrested by an office of
the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for "beating a
horse about the head with a board in the Bowery."
1890 census: Julius Bernstein 50, Sara age 50, Sam 20 and Jacob age 18
1880: Suffolk Street:
Bernstein, Julius age 42, clerk in store,
Sarah age 42, Jennie 20, tailoress,
Joseph 18, tailor,
Barney, 16, Nathan 14, Samuel 9, Jacob 7 all born in "Prussia" except Jacob born in NY
1890 census: Jane Klein age 54, female
Elizabeth Green and family
1890 census: Elizabeth Green, age 66, Rosie Green age 30, Frank Green age 29, Michael Green,
See 1878 Stabbing article below. See Green Family below.
Barbara and John Knapp
1890 census: Barbara Knapp age 32, John age 25, Lilly age 7
1880 Census: Sheriff Street, #90 Rear,
Wenst [Weinst?], Lizzie 53, mother, picks rags born Germany,
Amelia age 26, daughter keep home, George son age 19, peddler, Knapp,
John son in law steel roller, Barbara 23 daughter keep home,
John age 4, Maggie age 2
Joseph Sampson Blk
Joseph Sampson Blk age 50, Gussie Sampson Blk 1- age
1890 census: George White age 30, Mary White age 29, George White Jr age ?, Mary White, age 2
1890 census: Frank Frese age 36, --- Frese age 34
1890 census: Gustave Keichardt age 43
1890 census: Sebastian Ob--lz age 64 ?
- Hugh Haus
1890 census: Hugh Haus
- Jacob Schnidt
1890 census: Jacob Schnidt age 54
88 - 90 Sheriff Street 1900
Despite talk of eliminating the rear tenements, the 1900 census indicates there was still a rear
building at 88 Sheriff. It was also there in 1910.
A 1903 map shows a rear tenement at 88 sheriff and a chinese laundry at 90 Sheriff street.
Song Lee born in China, occupation laundryman, was listed at 90 Sheriff street in the 1900 census.
The rest of theses two building were filled with families where the head of household was born
in either Russia or Austria.
The majority were salesman, tailors or machine operators and the names suggests that most of them were Jewish.
Most indicated that they had immigrated in the late 1880s or in the 1890s.
No family listed at 88 or 90 Sheriff in the 1900 census originated in Germany.
1900 census 88 Rear Sheriff street:
1900 Census 88 Front Sheriff street:
- Wolf, Jacob head age 30 married 8 years, born Austria,
immigrated 1892, operator, Gussie age 30 3 children 3 living, born Austria, immigrated 1892,
Max son age 7, Issie son age 5, Minnie daughter age 2. children born New York
- Wax [?]. David, age 35 married 14 years, born Austria, imm, 1894, salesman,
Fannie age 35, 5 children 5 living born Austria,
Samuel age 13,
Fanny age 11,
Herman age 9,
Beckey age 7, all born Austria, Fannie and children immigrated 1898, Issie age 2, born New York
- Greenberger, Samuel, age 47 married 14 years, imm 1892, salesman,
Sarah age 49, 3 children 3 living,
Samuel son age 12,
Annie daughter age 10, all born Austria, Sarah and children imm 1896, Martha daughter age 3 born New York,
- Reuben, Herman, 40, operator,
Rosy, wife, 30, married 11 years 5 children 5 living,
Nathan, son, 16, salesman,
Moses, son, 14,
Rosy, step daughter, 17, saleslady,
Samuel son, 11, all born Austria, Herman imm 1892, rest immigrate 1897
- Schnaper, Cecelia, wife, widow, age 53, 2 children 2 living born Austria, servant,
Harry, 23, operator,
Moses, 15, operator, all born Austria all immigrated 1890.
- Schwartz, Ignatz, 60, operator,
Bertha age 48, no children, servant, both born Austria, both imm 1880
1900 Census 90 Sheriff street
- Frost, Jacob, 32, imm 1888, presser,
Ester, 28, married 9 years 4 children 4 living, imm. 1887, servant,
Rosy age 2, adults born Austria children born New York
1905: E 9th street,
Jacob Frost 37, presser mens cloth,
Esther Frost 33
Philip Frost 12
Harry Frost 11
Max Frost 9
Rosa Frost 7
Jessie Frost 4
1910: E 13th street, Jacob Frost 40, yiddish, operator shop,
Esther Frost 38
Philip Frost 17
Harry Frost 16
Max Frost 14
Rosie Frost 11
Tessie Frost 8
1915: Union street Brooklyn,
Jacob Frost 47, coat presser,
Esther Frost 43
Philip Frost 23, draughtsman,
Harry Frost 21, General Electric co.
Max Frost 18, General Electric co.,
Rose Frost 17, fancy box maker,
Tessie Frost 14
- Weinstand [?]
Soloman, 21, Russia, 1897, tailor,
Ester, 22, married 2 years 1 child, Russia, imm 1897,
Louis, 1 New York
- Harnik, Phillip, 27, Austria, tailor,
Rosa, 26, Austria, dressmaker, married 6 months no children
Phillip Harnik 35, salesman, born Austria,
Rosa Harnik 35,
Sam Harnik 7,
Siegmund Harnik 5,
Moe Harnik 2
1915: Brooklyn, Phillip Harnik 43, born Austria,
Rosa Harnik 40
Samuel Harnik 13
Sigmont Harnik 16
Max Harnik 8
Nathan, 28, Austria, tailor,
Freda 26 married 10 years, 2 children 2 living, Austria,
Annie 4, NY,
Zelda 10 months NY
Morris 31, Austria, imm 1888 laborer,
Becky 38, married 7 years, 2 children 2 living, Austria, imm 1887,
Issie 4, NY
Joseph 8 months NY
Abram age 40 baker born Austria imm 1890,
Celia age 33 married 10 years, 2 children 2 living, born Austria, imm 1892,
Max 6 NY,
Nathan 3 NY
1915: Stanton street,
Abe Hausman 58, baker,
Celia Hausman 53
Max Hausman 21
Nat Hausman 19, bookkeeper,
Isdore Hausman 14
Rose Hausman 4
Abe Hausman 62, baker, native language, Polish,
Celia Hausman 54
Nathan Hausman 23, salesman shoes,
Isidore Hausman 19, manager printing,
Rose Hausman 9
1930: Stanton st,
Abraham Hausman 72, yiddish,
Celia Hausman 64
Isidore Hausman 27
Rose Hausman 19
Moses age 30 born Russian imm 1890 tailor,
Rosy, age 26 ma 5 yrs. 3 children 3 living, Russia, imm 1890,
Benjamin 2, NY
Edward 2, NY
Mar 0 months, NY
- Kurtz, Issie age 42, Austria, imm 1890, tailor,
Bertha 30 married 9 yrs, 2 children 2 living, Austria, imm 1890,
Ester 6 NY,
David 4 NY
1905: Still at 88 Sheriff. See below.
- Notr[?] Jacob 51,
Austria, tailor, imm 1891,
Minnie age "41", married "28" yrs, 3 children 3 living,
Simon 15 Louis 10 all born Austria imm 1895
- Zanover, Joseph, 24, Austria, imm 1895, tailor,
Adele 21 married 2 yrs, 1 child, Austria, imm 1894,
Annie age 1, NY
- -rnaut (Frnaut?)
Israel age 32, Russia, im 1880, tailor,
Rosy age "23" married "10" yrs, Russia, imm 1890
2 children 2 living,
Molly 6 NY and Betsy 3 NY
Samuel, age 29 Austria, imm 1892, tailor,
Dora age 27 married 9 yrs, 2 children 2 living, Austria, imm 1892,
Nathan age 8 Austria, imm 1892,
Sadie 1 month NY
Sarah age 25, married 6 yrs 1 child,
Ida age 2,
all born Russia, all imm 1898
- Katz, Louis, age 38,
Austria, imm 1891,
Yetta age 30 married 10 yrs., 1 child, imm 1895,
Pearl, age 4 NY
George age 46 born Austria, imm 1887, janitor,
Lena, age 47 married 22 yrs. 2 children 2 living, Austria,
Annie age 18,
Samuel age 16 both born Austria imm 1894
1905: Still at 88 Sheriff. See below.
Louis, 24, imm 1895,
Benjamin, brother, 22, imm 1897, born born Russia, both salesmen
Morris 26, imm 1890 salesman,
Rachel 25, married 4 yrs, 1 child, imm 1893,
George age 1 NY, parents Russia,
David, age 40, Russia, imm 1887, tailor,
Fanny, age 38 married 18 yrs 5 children 5 living, Russia, imm 1890,
Yetta, 15, Russia, imm 1890, saleslwoman,
Joseph,12, Russia, imm 1890,
Harry 9 NY
Mary 6 NY
Jacob 2 NY
Ignatz, 30, Austria, imm 1888, painter,
Sarah 22 married 2 yrs, 1 child, Austria, imm 1885,
Bertha age 1 NY,
Nathan, 50, Austria, imm 1883, salesman,
Annie, 50 married 30 yrs, 4 children 4 living,
Samuel, 20, Austria, salesman,
Louis, 18 Austria, salesman,
Abraham, 16, Austria, carpenter,
Eva, 14 Austria, Annie and children imm 1889
Max, 30, Russia, imm 1890, salesman,
Ester, 30 married 3 yrs, 1 child, Russia, imm 1892,
Matthew age 2 NY,
Sheriff street, 90,
Max Shapiro 35, Russia Poland, seltzer
Yetta Shapiro 35
Mathew Shapiro 7
Cario Shapiro 5
Lilly Shapiro 3
Samuel age 28 Austria, imm 1884 tailor,
Mary 25, mar. 4 yrs 1 child, imm 1893,
Amelia age 1 NY
Philip 24, Austria, imm 1891 tailor,
Mary 22, NY, mar 2 yrs, 1 child,
Soloman, 11 months
Philip 40, Russia imm 1891, musician,
Rosy 35, mar. 13 yrs, 6 children 6 living,
Pauline, 11 Russia,
Issie, 9 Russia, all imm 1891,
Annie, 7 NY
Sadie, 4 NY,
Louis< 2 NY,
Minnie, 0 months
Bernard age 33 Austria,
imm 1889 tailor,
Jennie 28, mar 8 yrs, 2 children 2 living, Austria, imm 1889,
Samuel age 30,
Austria tailor imm 1889,
Jennie 31, marr. 9 yrs, 3 children 3 living, Austria imm 1886,
Gussie 3 Joseph 1
Benjamin 42, Russia imm 1890 salesman,
Gussie 40 marr 23 yrs, 7 children 7 living,
Russia, imm 1891,
Fanny 19 Russia, bookkeeper,
Jennie 17, saleslady,
Minnie 14 Russia,
Joseph 9 Russia all imm in 1891,
Carl 7 NY,
Lena 5 NY,
Annie 3 NY
Fannie Brodsky became a lawyer and practiced under the name Fannie Horowitz.
Fannie Horowitz was listed as a lawyer in 1906.
Joseph Brodsky, Carl Brodsky and Fannie Horowitz were New York delegates to Communist Party
Convention in 1919.
Carl Brodsky was active in the communist Party for years. He was active in peoples and civil rights.
Joseph Brodsky was lawyer for the International Labor Defense and active in the Communist Party.
1910: 217 E 10th street,
Benjamin Brodsky 50, Russia Yiddish, imm 1891, dealer, jewelry,
Augusta Brodsky 49, marr 31 yrs, 8 children 6 living, imm 1892,
Joseph Brodsky 20, law clerk law office,
Charles Brodsky 18, bookkeeper fruit company,
Lena Brodsky 15
Annie Brodsky 13
1920: 51 7th street, Benjamin Brodsky 62, Jewish, installment agent, -------,
Gussie Brodsky 59, Jewish,
Fannie Horowitz 36, daughter, Lawyer, office and practice,
Beatrice Horowitz 16, granddaughter,
Carl Brodsky 28, salesman waists,
Ada Brodsky 25, daughter in law,
Lena Brodsky 25, daughter, teacher high school
Fannie Horowitz, a lawyer of 299 Broadway,
was a candidate for the Left Wing for the Second district Municipal Court Justice.
1928: Fannie Horowitz, woman lawyer, of 299 Broadway was accused of using "runners" who faked accidents.
She was charged with being an ambulance chasers -
a lawyer who specializes in bringing cases seeking damages for personal injury.
She denied it. She was not alone, there were several other accused in a citywide investigation of the practice.
She was also accused of tax evasion. Again she was not alone in the investigation.
1933: Fannie Horowitz and Samuel Goldberg were the defense attorneys in a case
involving workers who demonstrated against the North German Lloyd,
four of whom were charges with assault and 10 who were charged with
disorderly conduct. The demonstration had been publicized as anti Hitler protesting the arrival
of Hans Weidemann, a Nazi envoy.
Louis age 50 imm 189- salesman, Russia
Lizzie 50 marr 40 yrs 1 child, Russian imm 1890
Annie 19 Russia imm 1890 servant
1905: Still at 90 Sheriff street. See Shapiro below.
Joseph, 56, tailor,
Lucy, 42, marr 25 yrs, 4 children 4 living,
Henry, 20, fram maker,
Minnie, 17, saleslady,
Louis, 16, salesman, all born Russia all imm 1890
Isadore, 25, Austria, imm 1890 tailor,
Nettie, 26 marr 6 yrs 2 children 2 living, Austria, imm 1890
Rosy, 3 NY,
Gussie, 5 months NY
Nathan, 23, Austria, imm 1893,
Becky, 13, marr 3 yrs 1 child, Austria, imm 1891,
Willie, son 4 months, NY
Tillmans (or Titttmans),
60, Russia imm 18--, tailor,
Annie, 56 marr 36 yrs 5 children 5 living, Russia imm 1892,
Betsy 26, saleslady,
Rosy, 24, saleslady,
Ida, 22, saleslady,
Pauline, 18, operator,
Sadie, 16 all born Russia all imm 1892, operator,
Wolf 26 Austria, tailor, imm 1886,
Rosy 23, marr 3 yrs, 2 children 2 living,
Florence 2, Jacob 1
Fire, Jacob, age 30, Austria, tailor,
Rosy 31 marr 8 yrs 4 children 4 living, Austria imm 1891,
Lee, Song, age 42, single born China, imm. 1880, laundryman
Weiss, David, 43, Austria imm 1898, confectioner,
Dora, 28, married 1 year, 1 child, Austria, imm 1898,
Rachael, 4 months, NY
88 - 90 Sheriff Street 1905
By 1905 Lee's Chinese laundry was gone from 90 Sheriff street.
The number of tenants was not much different:
Several families stayed on from 1900 to 1905 -
Messinger, Kurtz, and three families of Shapiro, seltzer sellers.
- 1900 - 88 Sheriff Rear 6 families - 1905 9 families1900 - 88 Sheriff Front 15 families - 1905 - 16 families
- 1900 90 Sheriff 21 families, 1905 22 families
1905 Census 88 Sheriff street Front:
1905 88 Sheriff street Rear:
Tarna-ker, Pincus, head age 32, Austria, saloon,
Pauline wife age 35,
Rosie 13, Yetta 11,
Issie 9 Molli 2,
Kalter, lena 19 servant,
Tarnafker Jennie sister 19, clerk
- Messinger, Jake, 50 peddler, Lean 52, both Austria,
Annie 18 bookkeeper, Sam 20, ribbon clerk
They were at 88 Sheriff in 1900. See above.
- Katz, Louis, Austria 40 painter, Yetta 39
Lena 4, Max 2
- Streichler, Lean 36 Austria, Wm 17, shipping clerk,
Hanna 14, Morris 9
- Taustern [?], Ben, 36 austria waiter,
Emanuel son a3,
Abe son 12,
- Kurtz, Issie, 54 Austria, presser, Bertha 34,
David 10, Joe 4
They were at 88 Sheriff in 1900. See above.
- Wasserstein Joe 60 Austria, operator,
Jaco 10, Max 9 months
- Turk, Joe 60 Austria paper boxes
Bernie, wife, 52
- Goldberg, Jacob, 37 Austria, ice, Sarah wife 30,
Annie 12, Elsie 7
- Tearer, Issie 28 Austria, cloaks
Tona wife 24, Bettie daughter 5 Louis son 2,
Minnie 6 months
- Levenstein, Joe, Russia Poland, 25, tailor,
Bek--- 3 Sam son 7 months
- -weick (- may be "S"), John 23, Aus Poland reverend,
Annie 1 month
- Stehnstein, Dam 46 Russin Tailor,
Nathan 20 tailor,
Harry 16, White goods,
Heiner 13, All born Russia
- Burgier, Annie Austria, 40, waists,
Isaac 14 Austria,
Sam 10 US
Levenstein Meyer, 46 cigars,
Lena 44 both Russian Poland
- Flergiana, Kalmer 29 Austria, operator,
Fannie 23, Austria, Yetta 3 Celia 2
1905 90 Sheriff street :
-enifer (- may be a "G",
Annie 30 austria, Fannie 9,
Freda 5, Harry 1
Shubler, John, Hungary, tailor, age 45,
Elisabeth 38, Hungary
- Bernstein, Sarah, 80, Rus Poland,
Gealer, Manny, 56, boarder, Russia, tailor,
Jennie boarder 50 Russia
- Brust, Issie, 30 Rusia blacksmith,
Sam 3 Ray 1 all born Russia
- Pimps, Sam 30 Russia operator,
Clara wife 30 Russia,
Schneider, Moris boarder, -0, tailor
- - ener, Nathan Austria 40, presser,
Issie 23, operator,
Louis, 16, operator,
Arthur 10, Falech son 8 all born Austria
- Wald, Jake age 36 pants,
Gussie, 35, both Austria, Max 12, Issie 10
Wald, Minnie 8,
- Schwartz, Kate Austria,
Morris 19, bookkeeper, Annie 17, pasenentry [?]
Fannie 16, white goods,
Carlma son 11 Sam son 9
- Ferther, Sam 70 Austria, tailor,
Sarah 53 wife,
Gordon, Sam 23 [?] boarder tailor
Schlanger, Miche, 30, Austria, candy store,
Sarah 29, Arron 6, Hyman 4, Sam 3,
Hanna 2 months
- Weindfeld, Max 36, tailor,
Peral mother 55, Harber, Sarah 16 cousin
- Weinstein, Morris, head, Russia, button holer,
Julia 33 both Russia,
Abie son 12,
Sam 8, Jacob, 5, Harry 1,
Coopermann, Abe, boarder, 35 Russia Selzer,
Morris, boarder 30, Russia, building
- Neadler, Louis head 27 Austria tailor,
Dora 27, Jake 1
- Smookler, Joe, 32 Austria coats,
Abie son, 9,
Issie 7, Louis 6, Lena 2 Sam 6 months
- Leavenfuss, Pincus, 41 Rus Poland, peddler,
Rosie, 41, Philip 20, painter,
Joe 17 newspapers,
Morris 15, Sam, 13,
Fannie 11, Ike 7 peddler all Rus Poland
Claum, Harris 44 Austria, no occupation, Fannie 44, Max 23 skirts,
Gussie 20 grocery, Rosie, 18,
David 16 dry goods, Mollie 10 all Russia
- Freed, John Hungary 45, no occupation,
Yetta 47, Hungary, Louse 21 hats,
and three boarder in their 20s, male, born Austria,
--- maker, blacksmith, matresses
- Pistreidht, Bernie, 28, Austria, ladies ----,
Annie wife 23 Russia, Motte son 2 Ray daughter 6 months
- Bandel, Kater, 46, Austria,, Annie 20 tailor, Bernie, 18 bottons,
Nathan 15 errand boy,
Issie 10, Paulie daughter 8
In 1905 the Brooklyn Daily Eagle reported that Annie Badel age 22 of
90 Sheriff street had been stalked by her former fiance, Carl Robinson, age 27, a jeweler, living in Brooklyn.
The couple had recently quarreled and the engagement had ended. Robinson had threatened to kill Annie.
Her brother chased Robinson and when he was caught he was found to have a .38 caliber revolver.
He was arrested.
- Goldfarb, Hyman, 34, tailor,
Rosie, 35 both Russia,
Celia 8, Annie 4 Tilly 1,
Shember, Issie cousin 22 Russia operator
- "Teffer", Issie, 32 Austria carpenter,
Bessie 28, Sam 6 all born Austrian Louis 1, Ginsberg, Jennie 20 sister in
law, skirts, Mollie age 17 sister in law ---,
"Tiffer", Mac brother, age 28 skirts.
- Turkush, David, head 28 peddler,
Bessie 22 Hanry 2,
Yetta w, Zimmuch [?] Nathan 50 father in law, Austria. peddler,
- Shiffman, Nathan, 59 Austria peddler,
Sam 26 college,
Abie, 21 cutter, louse 23 examiner,
Rosie 17 white goods.
- Scerer, Sam, 37 tailor,
Mirchel 3, Max -
- Friedman, Kive 50 Rus Poland, presser,
louis 24 nurse,
Morris operator all Rus Poland
- Shapiro, Louis, 60 Russia Seltzer,
Denia, wife, 60
They were at 88 Sheriff in 1900. See above.
Morris 31 seltzer,
Rachel wife 25, Joe son 6,
They were at 88 Sheriff in 1900. See above.
- Shapiro, Max, 35, Austria, seltzer, Yetta 35,
Matthew 7, Carie son 5, Lilly 3
They were at 88 Sheriff in 1900. See above.
Werner, Harry, 40 Austria, presser,
Annie 19 cigars,
- Weir, Bernie, 48, butcher,
Rosie 17, "Basanentry", Sadie 7 Joe 14
- Kirschbaum, Max, 28 butcher,
Ida 32, Issie 10, Rosie 7, Dora 5, Eva 3 Gussie 1
88 - 90 Sheriff Street 1910
The Shapiro family were still at 90 Sheriff street in 1910.
the Weinfeld family was also still at 90 Sheriff street.
There was still a rear building at 88 Sheriff street.
1910 Census 90 Sheriff:
1910 Census 88 Sheriff:
Shier, Sam 40 Austria Yiddish, tailor,
Sarah, wife 33 mar 12 yrs 3 children 3 living,
Michael 8 Max, 4, and a boarder, male age 22, tailor
Kaufman. Nathan, Russia, Yiddish, tailor cloaks,
Tessid 23 married 5 yrs 3 children 2 living,
Bennie 4 Rosie 2, Hochman, Feige mother in law, 54 5 children 1 living, plus a boarder,
age 70 wid male.
Rubin, Nathan, 26 Russia yiddish, plasterer,
Spritze 26, married 7 yrs, 4 children 3 living, Bedkie, 4,
Esther 9 months,
Rachmanchi--, Dinah mother in law, 55 widow, 10 children 9 living,
Rubin, Ida, sister in law age 9
Shapiro, Louis, age 69, Russian yiddish,
Dina wife age 67 married 49 yrs, 8 children 3 living,
George grandson 11,
Samuel grandson 8,
Annetta granddaughter 4, Rachael, widow, daughter in law, age 45
Listed in 1905 at 90 Sheriff.
- Brown [?] Iek 30, operator cloaks,
Annie 27, married 7 yrs, 4 children 3 living,
Harry 4, Dora 6 months, and three boarders, Austria,
males ages 19, 28 and 35, presser, artist & painter.
42, delaer mineral water, emp.,
Yetta, 40, married 13 yrs, 4 children 4 living,
Matthew 11, Carl 9, Lillian 7 Rosie 3 and a boarder age 20 female, ladies waists
Listed in 1905 at 90 Sheriff
The Chinese laundry appears to be back.
Indig, Max, 46, marriage 2, cap maker,
Esther, 35 marriage 2, 8 yrs 4 children 4 living,
Yetta, step daughter, 15
Isidor 23 months -
Parents born Austria - Yiddish - children born NY. Plus a boarder and a cousin.
1920: Sutter, ave., Brooklyn,
Max Indig 58, ---- worker factory,
Esther Indig 45
Eva Indig 17, bookkeeper office,
Joseph Indig 15, printer print shop,
Isidor Indig 11
- Rosenstrahl, Louis 22, tailor,
Klnig, Celia sister in law, 16, finisher cloak shop,
Rosenstrahl, Rosie, sister 16, finisher cloak shop
Bernstein, Phillip, 45, marriage 2, tailor shop, Yiddish,
Rosie, 45, marriage 2, 10 yrs, 4 children 4 living,
Rosie, 22, operator, coats,
Gussie, 19, dressmaker,
Hausen, Sam step son, 22, cutter cloak shop
Hausen David age 19 stepson, driver wagon -
Immigration 1905 and 1906
- Suskind [?], Pincus, 50, tailor,
Sarah 50 married 28 yrs, 9 children 4 living,
Joe, 22, tailor,
Meyer 19, tailor,
Max 16, pocketbook factory
Two boarders - all born Austria - Yiddish
- Gastivirth, Morris,
24, tailor, Austria, Yiddish,
Birdie 23 months
- Lerner, Nathan, age 50, Austria Yiddish, pressor tailor shop
Mary 48, married 27 yrs, 10 children 5 living,
Isidor, 26, cloak operator,
Louis 22, cloak operator,
Aaron 20, peddler fruit,
Phillip 12 -
Immigration 1898, 1900, and 1903.
- Felke, Daniel 25, Austria Yiddish, peddler bread,
Sarah 29 married 7 years, Sophie age 3 -
cousin and two boarders.
Fried Yetta 52 widow 7 children 4 living, Hungary Yiddish, imm. 1890,
with four boarders.
Yetta is probably the same Yetta listed as Freed in the 1905 census.
Max, 40, Austria Yiddish, tailor,
Bessie 37 married 17 yrs 4 children 4 living,
Lilly 15, office work, David 14, Helen 12,
Dora 11 and a boarder
Listed in 1905.
1900: 83 Willett street, ME Weinfeld 29, taylor,
Bessie Weinfeld 26, 4 children 4 living,
Lillie Weinfeld 5,
David Weinfeld 4,
Helena Weinfeld 2,
Dorah Weinfeld 1/12,
Charles Weinfeld 22, brother
1920: Avenue C,
Max Weinfeld 49, operator coats,
Bessie Weinfeld 47,
David Weinfeld 24, salesman tinware,
Dora Weinfeld 20 office stenographer
- Yau, Charlie, age 49, Chinese, laundryman, imm 1882,
Yak, Charlie, 42, brother, Chinese, laundryman imm 1890
- Arnofsky, Max, 24, Russia Yiddish butcher imm 1905
88 Rear 1910 :
Feurer, Samuel 32, Austria Yiddish, saloon keeper, imm 1897,
married 8 yrs, 2 children 2 living,
Nelson 3, a servant and a boarder
Sparies [?], Joseph, 70 married 50 years, no occupation, Austria Yiddish imm 1908,
Lean, age 50 10 children 6 living
- Shenkelbach, Morris 40, Austria Yiddish,
Max 11, dora 5 Lewis 3
- Wolf, Morris, age 70, Russia Yiddish,
- Dreifach, Adolf, 32, Austria Yiddish, pocketbook maker,
Kreitzke, wife 30 married 8 yrs 4 children 4 living,
Pauline 7, Rosei 6 Sadie 3 and Sam 1
- Sawich, Mike 25, Russian Polish, laborer odd jobs,
Katie 24 and four boarders
- Cooper, Sarah, widow 47, Austria Yiddish,
Bernie, 18, operator cloak shop,
Isidor 17, errand boy, Gussie 12, imm 1905
- Arbisfeld, Joyna 30, Russ. Yiddish, presser tailor shop,
Freida 27 married 5 years 1 child,
Annie 4, and a boarder
- Schoenfeld, Abram, 29, musician private parties, Austria Yiddish,
Beckie, 30 married 4 yrs 3 children 3 living,
Fannie 2, Celia 8 months
1915: Kings, Abe Schoenfeld 35, musician, Austria,
Becky Schoenfeld 32, Austria,
Edith Schoenfeld 9,
Fannie Schoenfeld 8,
Celia Schoenfeld 5,
Rose Schoenfeld 3
1925: Manhattan E 3rd street,
Abraham Schoenfeld 46, musician,
Beckie Schoenfeld 43,
Edith Schoenfeld 19,
Fannie Schoenfeld 18,
Celia Schoenfeld 16,
Rose Schoenfeld 14,
Toby Schoenfeld 09,
Sarah Schoenfeld 05,
Beatrice Schoenfeld 01,
1930: Throop ave. Brooklyn own, $8,000, Poland Yiddish,
Abe Schoenfeld 50, no occupation,
Rebecca Schoenfeld 48,
Edith Schoenfeld 24, organist theater,
Fannye Schoenfeld 23, stenographer, office,
Celea Schoenfeld 20, bookkeeper office,
Rose Schoenfeld 18, clerk office,
Tobey Schoenfeld, daughter, 14,
Sarha Schoenfeld 10,
Beatrice Schoenfeld 6
- Silver, Sam 22, house painter,
Annie wife 23
- Fuchsman, Harry 48, Russ. Yiddish, finisher cloak factory,
Springe wife 48 married 30 years 3 children 3 living
- Rosenberg, Rachel, age 35 wid. 1 child 1 living, finisher cloak factory
- Bierer, Issie 50, Austria Yiddish, restaurant keeper, Annie 45 married 28 years no children
40 Austria Yiddish peddler window shades,
Mirel 40, married 20 yrs. 6 children 5 living,
Joe 19, tailor,
Isaac 17, tailor,
Mary 15, laborer corset covers,
Kirchenbaum, Jacob, 35,
Fanny 30 married 3 years 0 children Austria Yiddish, tailor cloaks,
Morris, 39, Russia Yiddish, peddler food,
Dina, 40, married 14 yrs 5 children 4 living,
Sarah, 5 months
- Wagner, Louis 40, Austria Yiddish milk dealer retail,
Pauly 34, married 13 years 2 children 2 living, Gussie 12, Hanna 8
Burij, Mike 32, Astria Polish, laborer brass factory,
and three boarders
- Plotzky, Joe,
44, laborer factory, Austria Polish,
Anne 43, married 12 yrs 32 children 1 living,
Tony 5 and three boarders
- Bednarche, Austria Polish,
John 23, imm 1906, laborer machine shop
Anne 10 months,
Nick 19 brother,
and two boarders
88 - 90 Sheriff Street 1920
In 1920 88 Sheriff still had a front and a rear.
There were 9 families in the front of 88 Sheriff street.
There were 8 families in the rear of 88 Sheriff
- Krug, Abraham from Galicia, liquor dealer saloon
- Simkowitz, Harry from Poland, baker
- Meltzer, Benny from Russia, tailor
- Klien, Mollie from Warsaw, no occupation
- Cohen, Morris from Russia tailor
- Siegmann, Sam from Austria, presser
- Cohen, Morris, from Poland tailor
- Setzer Sam from Russia tailor
All Yiddish speakers.
At 90 Sheriff there were 18 families in residence.
The Shapiros were still there. See Shapiro below.
Mostranski, Lewis 34, from Galicia, elevator office
- Janiks, Alexander 44 from, Hungary, German speaker, baker
- Weinberg, Isidor 38 from Russia spring maker beds
- Haekowitz, Chas 38 from Galicia, horse ---- shop
- Baron, George 36 from Hungary, Maygar speaker, laboror lumber yard
- Tonchak, Henry 32 from Galicia, laborer brass
- Cohen, Isaac 48 Russia, tailor
- Gold, Morris 25, from Russia, waiter restaurant
All Yiddish speakers except where noted.
There were several families form Galicia.
Galicia is an historic region of Eastern Europe between Poland and the Ulkraine.
From Newspaper Articles About 88 - 90 Sheriff Street
88 Sheriff Street in 1874
BURGLARY OF CIGARS
On December 7, 1874 the cigar store of Charles Salomon, No 403 East Houston
street was broken into and 18,500 cigars worth $900 were stolen. 11,000 of the
cigars were found at the home of Betty Schwartz on the second floor at N0.
88 Sheriff Street where 11,000 of the stolen cigars were found. The investigating officer followed and express wagon to the
restaurant of Francis Bressing at 127 Bleeker and found 2,000 additional
Betty Schwartz, August Doerge and Frances Bressing were arrested in connection with the crime.
New York Times, and New York Herald, December 11, 1874
90 Sheriff Street in 1876
"John Baker, of No. 90 Sheriff St. who on 11 August stabbed John George Wese, a rag dealer*,
living in the same house in a domestic quarrel was found guilty yesterday in the
Court of General sessiosn"
He was sent to the state prison for 2 years.
New York Times Sept 12, 1876
Note: Neither Baker nor Wese were listed at 90 Sheriff in 1870.
As can be seen from these records the residence of the building seem to have moved in and out
quite frequently. I cannot find anything else on Wese.
90 Sheriff Street in 1878
STABBING ON SHERIFF STREET 1878
The New York Times reported on August 5, 1878 that
John Sewall, a wood turner age 24 of 252 Eldridge Street met
a young woman and offered to walk her home.
Upon their arrival near her appartment John Sewell was set upon by the young lady's brother,
Michael Green, "a bone cart driver" who lived at 90 Sheriff street.
A fight ensued in the alley of 94 Sheriff street, which also involved
two other young men, David Walsh age 23, a tobacco worker, who lived at 15
Clinton street and Martin Mueller age 25, a wood carver who lived at 9
Pitt street. John Sewell, David Walsh and Martin Mueller suffered stab wounds.
New York Times August 5, 1878
The follow up on August 6, 1878 titled
"The Affray in Sheriff street"
clarified the situation somewhat.
Mrs. Reeb, a widow and sister of Michael Green was at the "residence of Mrs. Louth,
who lives in a little wooden house run up in the center of the filthiest of courts,
at the back of No. 91 Pitt street. Soon after 11 o'clock Mrs. Reeb started for her home,
and Martin Mueller, a wood-carver, aged 25, who lives a little further down
the street asked permission to see her home."
When they arrived at 94 Sherriff they stood talking.
Michael Green arrived and threw a box at Martin Mueller. Mueller
initially treated the matter as a joke but Green approached him and
hit him in the mouth. Mueller left but returned with his brother and "a man named Wagner".
Feeling that Mueller and the others had returned to "thrash him". Mueller "rushed forward"
and Green drew his knife "a large instrument which he used in his trade as a sash-maker."
Mrs. Reeb fled to the police station. Another sister, Rose Green, got involved in
the altercation and received some blows that resulted in bruises and a
knife wound on her right arm. A free for all ensued and Meuller was stabbed
in the face, another man named John Seewalt was also stabbed and David
Walsh an innocent bystander who stupidly ran into the alley to see
what all the fuss was about was stabbed in the abdomen. Walsh a married
man with one child was not expected to live.
Michael Green was arraigned at the Essex Market Police court on August 7, 1878.
Two of the stabbing victims, Martin Muller and John "Seewalt" and a witness named,
Preganzer, were present. David Walsh was still at Bellevue Hospital and was not expected to live.
Muller was stabbed in the arm. Seewalt was stabbed near his right eye. Rose Green also
suffered an "incised wound on the arm". New York Times August 8, 1878
Notes: See the Green family below. Michael Green does not have appeared to have gotten in
serious trouble as a result of this incident as he was listed with his mother and siblings on
Sheriff street in the 1880 and 1890 censuses.
90 Sheriff Street in 1894
"JEWISH DAY NURSERY
Opened from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. it consisted of two sections:
Under the guidance of Miss Ida Clemons, a Jewish day nursery will be established at
90 Sheriff Street."
The rate was 5 cents a day per child.
- children between
the age of 10 days and three years
- children 3 to 6, sho were instructed
in "kindergarden work" in the morning with the afternoons "devoted to recreation"
(Information from the New York Times October 21, 1894.)
Miss Ida Clemons was listed of Brightside Day Nursery in an article about a Jewish fund raiser in
December 1895. (New York Times)
The school was listed in the New York Charities Directory of 1895.
Brightside Day Nursery and Kindergarden (org. and opened in 1804), 90 Sheriff St.
Receives the babies and children, from ten days to six years, of
working mothers during the day from 7 A. M. to & P. M., and feeds
instructs, and clothes them. A charge of five cents a day for
each child is made to those able to pay. Supported by private and
voluntary contributions. Miss Ida Clemons, Supt., to whom apply fro further information.
For more information on the Brightside Nursery go to
IRENE ROTHSCHILD GUGGENHEIM
New York Charities Directory By Charity Organization Society of the City of New York, 1895
88 Sheriff Street 1895
In June 1895 a heat wave prostrated Bernard Glucksberg of 90 Sheriff street.
88 Sheriff Street 1896
BOARD OF HEALTH, 1896
Health Department of the City of New York Annual Report, Year ending December 1896
"The rear houses at the following properties were ordered vacated,
preparatory to condemnation, by the Board of Health, but were not condemned,
as plans and specifications were submitted to and approved by the Board of Health,
subject to approval of the Department of Buildings, and the owners of same
have declared their intention to altering and repairing the houses
in conformation with the plans and specifications submitted. When said alterations
are completed, the resolution ordering vacation of premises will be rescinded.
The summery indicates that 87 rear houses were ordered preparatory for
condemnation and that 80 were actually condemned.
86 Sheriff street (rear)
88 Sheriff street (rear)
85 Columbia street (rear)
87 Columbia street (rear)"
REAR TENEMENTS, 1896
Half of the rear tenements in New York city in 1896 were reportedly
owned by landlords who lived on the premises. The rear tenement were considered
particularly unhealthy because they were dark and poorly ventilated.
The majority were also considered filthy an "regular slaughter house for children". Building
new rear tenements was prohibited in the 1880s. However, existing rear tenements
continued to exist and health reformers preached against them. Over 50,00 people
supposedly lived in 2,500 rear tenements.
The article provided a partial list of the rear tenements in the city which included:
- 80 Sheriff, landlord, Catherine Schmid, number of occupants 28
82 Sheriff street, landlord Elizabeth Gurnand, no. of occupants, 28
86 Sheriff street, landlord, Herman Kline, no. of occupants 36
88 Sheriff street, landlord, William Schneider, number of occupants 33
New York Times February 24, 1896.
Note: 90 Sheriff street NOT listed. A map from 1899 shows that the rear tenement
was gone from 90 Sheriff by at least that time. See below.
ARRESTED AT THEATRE: 1896 the New York Herald -
Morris Greenberg age 24 of 88 sheriff street was accused of robbing a store on Attorney street,
taking several hundred dollars worth of
property. Among the items stolen were two tickets to the Thalia Theatre on the Bowery.
Greenberg was apprehended by police in the seat designated by the stolen ticket.
88 Sheriff Street 1897
86 and 88 Sheriff street rear were listed by the 1897 Board of Health Report as "remodeled" and "again occupied for human
The 1897 report indicated that 55 buildings were demolished, 17 remodeled and occupied 5, remodeled but
not occupied and
17 had no action was taken.
Jake Goldstein - 92 Sheriff Street - 1905
Jacob Goldstein, age 16, the son of a poor tailor at 92 Sheriff street, embezzled $5,000 from his employer.
Already a graduate of DeWitt Clinton High School he started work at age 14
as a bookkeeper for Hecker Luncheons Company. He had been doctoring the
books for two years when he was caught for forging a $30 check.
He invested some of the money in Brooklyn real estate,
put $1,500 in the bank, bought his mother a $400 diamond ring and bought his sister a $350 piano.
He told his family he had been speculating in the stock market. His real estate investment made money.
He was sent to the Elmira Reformatory.
Thats what you get for employing a 14 year old to do your books.
1905: 92 Sheriff street, Goldstein, Bennie, head age 58, born Austria tailor,
Yetta age 57 born Hungary,
Jack son 17 office boy,
Helen 14, waists,
Albert 12, Sam 8
1915: Bronx, Benjamin Goldstein 45, tailor,
Yetta Goldstein 48,
Albert Goldstein 21, shipping clerk,
Helen Goldstein 22,
Samuel Goldstein 18
92 Sheriff Street 1920
In 1920 brothers, Benjamin Falk age 25, and Rubin Falk age 21, were boarding with the
Abraham Greenfeder family at 92 Sheriff street. The census indicated that they were Yiddish
speakers who had
had immigrated from
Galicia circa 1900. Benjamin was a salesman of cloaks and suits and Rubin was an express truckman.
In November 1920 Rubin Falk was charged with grand larceny. A truck containing about $20,000 of stolen
leather goods was found in a West 16th street garage.
Five men were arrested in connection with the event including R. Falk of 92 Sheriff street.
90 Sheriff Street in 1927 and 1929
Sheriff Street continued to be an address that made the news in connection with vice.
In 1927, as part of a larger article about liquor raids during prohibition, was the
following comment about 90 Sheriff street.
"Detectives also arrested four men and the wives of two of them on charges of
possession of drugs after a raid on an apartment
at 90 Sheriff Street where officers said they found
two opium layouts, a small quantity of opium and a coffee can of yen shee"
January 7, 1929
New York Times.
Yen shee: the residue formed in the bowl of an opium pipe by smoking.
Some Sheriff Street Families
Green Family on Sheriff Street
Jacob Green, circa 1813, Bavaria and Elizabeth ________
Birth: Bavaria circa 1813 based on 1860 census
Elizabeth _ in Germany based on births of children - born circa 1824 based on censuses
Children: Based on censuses unless otherwise noted
- Jacob circa 1840 Bavaria
- Barbara c 1844 Bavaria
- Catherine c 1849 Bavaria
- Frederick (Fred) c 1853 Bavaria
- Michael (Mike) circa 1855, New York
- Lena, circa 1857 New York
- Francis (Frank) c 1859 New York
- Rose circa 1861, New York
1860 Census: Dwelling #179 family #984, apge 107 2nd Division 11th Ward, Jacob Green 47, laborer $100, Bavaria,
Elizabeth age 26, Bavaria,
Jacob 20, carman, Bavaria,
Barbara 16, Bavaria,
Catherine 11 Bavaria, Frederick 7 Bavaria, Michael 5, New York, Lena, 3 New York
Francis 1 New York
Note: #169 = 82 Sheriff Street up to #177 = 98 Sheriff Street.
1878: See stabbing story above.
1880 Census: #92 Rear Sheriff: Lizzie mother 54, born Germany,
Fred 25, Mike 24, Frank 21 Rose 19 all born New york
1890 NYC Police Census: 90 Sheriff, Elizabeth Green age 66,
Rosie Green 30, Frank Green 29, Michael Green 33.
1900 Census: 80 Rear Sheriff street, Elizabeth Green head born June 1828, age 78, widow,
married 50 years,
born Germany, immigrated 1860,
Michael son March 1858, age 42 born New York,
Grafelmann (and a variety of spellings) on Sheriff Street
Liquor and Grocer at 88 90 Sheriff Street.
Birth: Germany circa 1812
Marriage: Sophia most likely in Germany. She was born circa 1823. Second marriage?
- Ann circa 1825
Birth: Harry circa 1832, Germany
Naturalization: Grafelman, Martin Common
Pleas Court, NY County, April 2, 1847 vol 71 Record No 94
no occupation former nationality German, witness William Wilson 86 Sherrif
1850 Census: 88 Sheriff street, "Gorfman", Martin age 38, Sophia age 27, Harry Tompkins 21, clerk,
Ann Grofman 24, Harry Grofman 18 all born Germany.
IRS Taxes 1862, 1863, 1865:
Henry Grafelman, 90 Sheriff street liquor dealer 1862, 1863 and 1865 IRS tax
1851 Directory: Martin Graffleman grocer 88 Sheriff Street
1860 Census: Henry Grafelmann age 28, grocer, $300 born Hanover, see 1860 census above.
1865 taxes: Grafelmann, Henry, 90 sheriff, dealer liquor, $25
Heimach (and variety of spellings) on Sheriff Street
In December 2009, several months after I first put this page up, Debra Hyman wrote to say that her family had lived at 88 Sheriff
Street at the birth of her grandmother in 1888. Debra has generously shared some Heymach documents and a photo of her
Frederick Heymach carpenter was listed at 88 Sheriff street in the 1890 city directory.
He was not listed at that address in the 1890 police census.
Marriage: Margrethe Neubert born circa 1859 Germany
NOT listed NYC grooms index
Death of Frederick Heymach: Before 1896. I cannot find in with a variety of spellings attempts in the NYC death index.
- George Heymach
Greener, Katie C, Apr 11 1909, Bronx, #413
1900 Census: With mother
1918 WWDR: George Heymach 699 can't read Yonkers age 33,
birth date Sept 12, 1885, teacher Mechanical Eng Katy Heymach wife,
tall, medium build grey eyes brown hair, physically fit.
1920 Census: Yonkers George age 34, teacher,
Kate age 31,
George age 9,
Margaret age 8
Fredrick age 7 and a half
1930 Census: Bronx, George own $10000, age 44, teacher public school
Katherine wife age 41
George age 19, draftsman construction
Margaret age 18, telegraph
Frederick age 17, draftsman gas
All born New York
George Heymach, 1624 Robertson Place Bronx,
age 56, Katie Haymach wife same address, Board of Education
191 Livingston Street Brooklyn
Death of Kate Haymach: Katie age 55 years February 25, 1944 #2306 Bronx
Death: 1968, 22 February Dutchess county (Heymach Family Tree Ancestry)
SSDI: Wappingers Falls Dutchess Feb 1968
- Marie Margarethe Heymach
Civil Record: Maria Margretha Heymach, date of birth October 23, 1888,
place of birth, 88 Sheriff St father Frederick Heymach mother Magrethe Heymach maiden name of mother Neubert, birth place of mother,
Germany, age 33, birth place of father Germany age 33, occupation carpenter, 3 of 2 living children #30981 Manhattan (copy shared by Debra Hyman,
Father, Friedrich Heimach, mother Margarethe Neubert, born New York 23 October 1888, baptized 14 April 1889, Maria Margarethe,
Theo Leonhard, ??? De Witt Memorial ??? 280 Rivington St, N. Y.
1896 City Directory: Heimach Margaret wid, Fred, h 251 2d
1900 Census: West End Ave, Manhattan, Heymach, Margaret, head
born Sept 1859 age 40 widow, 2 children 2 living, born Germany, immigrated 1885 in US 15 years, domestic,
George son Sept 1885 age 14, born New York, office boy,
Margaret daughter October 1888 age 11,
born New York at school
Death of Margrethe Neubert Heymach:
- De Witt Memorial Church 280 Rivington Street, was an Evangelical missionary church
making "special efforts to reach the large foreign population in its
It was built by Mr. & Mrs. Morris K. Jesup in honor of Mrs. Jesup's father, the Rev Thomas De Witt who had been
a pastor of the
Marble Collegiate Church (Dutch Reform).
It was dedicated on May 8, 1881.
Theodore Leonhard was the "German pastor".
* New York Times, May 13, 1901
"It has Bible classes and special services for Chinese, Hebrews, Italians, Germans, and Armenians.
There are three pastors, the Rev. William T Elsing, the Rev Theodore Leonhard, and the Rev.
Bernard Angel, who minister respectively to the
English, German and Jewish speaking congregations"
New York Times, May 13, 1901
Margrethe Neubert Heymach, courtesy of Debra Hyman, January 2010
Grave of Margaret Heymach courtesy of Debra Hyman, January 2010"Here's a photograph of my great-grandmother's grave.
She moved to California with her daughter Margaret and is buried here in Stockton.
Her husband, Friedrich, died at sea.
The family story is he was unable to find work in NYC as a carpenter and
took a job as a stoker on a ship, where he died (of heat exhaustion or a heart attack)
in the engine room. I was able to verify
this when I had a packet of family letters
translated from the Old German into English.
Among them was a receipt from the steamship company
forwarded his possessions (a couple of items of clothing and not much else)
to his widow.
Debra Hyman, January 2010