Dockworkers and Longshoremen

  • Johann Bernard Petermann was a dock foreman in Hoboken, New Jersey.
  • Fritz Kettler was a longshoreman in Brooklyn and Hoboken
  • Johannus Jensen was a longshoreman in Hoboken

Click on the picture to see more images of longshoremen.


  • Johann Bernard Petermann was listed on the birth record of his son, Christian, as a butcher. The family was living in Brooklyn at the time.
  • Peter Goehle was listed on all records connected to him as a butcher. In the 1900 Federal Census in New York he was listed as a "provisions butcher".

Click on the picture to see more images of butchers.

Carpenters and Lumbermen

Law Land was a joiner or carpenter. His son Percy Land was a carpenter and construction contractor. Herman Blanck was a carpenter and his brothers, John and Louse Blanck, worked as lumbermen in a lumberyard. Henry Erxmeyer and his son Henry were carpenters.

Click on the picture to see more images of lumbermen and carpenters.

Cordwainers and Shoemakers

Henry Blanck was a shoemaker from Lehe, Germany. George Sykes and his family were cordwainers in Yorkshire, England.

Click on the picture to see more images of cordwiners and shoemakers

Tailors and Dressmakers

Catherine Furst Swartzmeier Lindemann was a dressmaker and her second husband, Julius Lindemann, was a tailor.

Click on the picture to see more images of tailors and dressmakers.

Teamsters and Drivers

Louis Blanck and his brother, Henry Blanck, were drivers/teamsters in Hoboken New Jersey.

Click on the picture to see more images of teamsters and drivers

Seamen, Sailors and Merchant Marines

Henry Blanck Senior, his brothers-in-law, Henrich and Fredrich Erxmeyer and Berend Petermann all were sailors out of Bremerhaven.

Click on the picture to see more images of sailors and merchant marines.

Harbor Men

Important Boat Men in harbors were: pilots, tub boat men, lighter boat men and canal boat men. See Harbor Men





Grocers and Provisions Dealers

Women's Work

Brooklyn Bridge Workers

The Woolen Industry

Lands, Laws, and related families in the West Riding of Yorkshire were involved in the woolen trade. For information (with images) on the woolen trade in Yorkshire click on the picture

Linen Weaver

Johann, Gerhard, and Christopher Blanck of Lehe Germany were linen weavers. For information (with pictures) on linen and linen weaving click on the picture

  • Joseph Walsh, was listed from 1905 until 1920 as a "coachman". In 1920 he was listed as a couchman for a private family.

Collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Driving in Central Park, New York

Garment Workers

From New York City, State, and Nation by Sol Holt, 1955

Tom Blanck's aunts and uncles worked in "the garment district".

The caption with this photo reads:

"The making of clothing is New York's leading industry. Its manufacture is done by thousands of small businesses, such as shown above. They produce millions of dollars worth of garments.

Telephone Operator

In the 1920 census Isabell Walsh was listed as a telephone operator for a Guarantee Trust Company.

Illustrated 1916, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck


Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Mathias Langan was listed as a labouer.

While most of the 'humorous" Irish postcards depict "Paddy" as a stupid bumpkin I find this card amusing in that the citified gent got his comeuppance.


Collection of Maggie Land Blanck, Harper's Monthly, June 1870, THE OCEAN STEAMER

Metallic Lathers

The sons and grandsons of Pat Langan were "wire lathers" and were involved with the lathers union. See Pat Langan

According to marriage, census and other records all of the sons and several of the grandsons of Pat Langan were "lathers":

  1. Mathias born 1887, son of Pat, was listed as a lather in the 1910 census, at his marriage in 1915 and at his death in 1928.

  2. Frank born 1892, son of Pat, was a member of Local 46 according to his grandson Gary Langan

    Frank's sons were also members of Local 46

    1. Walter born 1914

    2. Roger born 1927
  3. Eddie born 1901, son of Pat, per 1928 marriage, 1940 census and Gary Langan

  4. Robert born 1906, son of Pat, per marriage 1929, and death 1958.

  5. Thomas Langan born 1905, son of James, was a lather per 1927 marriage, 1930 and 1940 census.

  6. James Langan born 1909, son of James, may have been a lather. His son James W born 1930 was per his obit. His son Thomas T born 1932 was per his obit.

Gary Langan wrote in April 2009 that his grandfather, Frank Langan (the Senator, a lather nickname), his father, Walter Langan, and his uncle, Roger Langan were all members of Local 46. He believes that his great uncles, Eddie and Billy, were also card members. His cousin, Matt, is a current card member. Other family members worked "under permit". That is, they worked as lathers but were not union members.

Metal lathing is used both for fire proofing and decorative purposes. For fireproofing steel columns are wrapped in metal lathing and then covered with plaster or stucco. The metal lath is made up of a sheet of metal containing many small holes. Sometimes a furring system is applied and another layer of metal lathing and plaster is added. Furring is a light frame work which uses metal (or wood) strips to support the finished surface. Metal lath work can also be used to form arches and other shapes.

By 1908 interior architectural forms in fire proof buildings were almost exclusively constructed using metal lath.

Metal Lathers have historically performed a variety of duties on the job. In the initial stages of a project they are responsible for establishing a plan and laying out the job. Next, they cut the framing material and apply the metal lath. In the final stage they create openings for air ducts, electrical outlets, and heating and ventilating pipes. Sometimes they create suspended ceiling frames to support the installation of acoustic tile. Other lathers specialize in applying stucco and plaster to walls and ceilings in remodeling projects.


Metal Lathers were exposed to asbestos which was used as insulation and fire retardent in buildings and as a component in asbestos stucco (made up of cement, sand and asbestos fibers).


A jurisdictional agreement in 1903 listed the following terms relating to metal lathers.

The jurisdictional agreement between the Master League of Cement Workers and the Metallic Lathers' Union of New York is as follows:

First. The term "fireproof construction" shall apply to concrete slabs, arches, and other bodies of concrete supported by or reenforced with rods of mesh, and used in connection with structural steel. This includes also arches supported by corrugated or other sheet metal.

Second. The term "reenforced concrete construction" shall apply to bodies of concrete of any kind used for sustaining loads, where the concrete structure wholly or in part replaces structural steel.

Third. On the laying and setting of light iron or steel or mesh used in fireproof construction, also on the cutting and bending of all light iron or steel, metal and wire lath or mesh or sheets for floor, arches, and the making of hangers, clips, and stirrups, whether made on the job or elsewhere.

On each job of fireproof construction there shall be a foreman who shall have charge of the metallic lathers and laborers on fireproof concrete, who shall be a member of the Metallic Lathers' Union in good standing, and who shall work with his tools when requested to do so when no concreting is going on.

Fourth. On the fabricating and assembling of all columns, beams, and girders, of metal or wire lath, light iron or steel, on the cutting, bending, and setting of all light iron and steel, and of metal and wire lath or mesh used in construction of reenforced concrete, including hangers, clips, and stirrups whether made on the job or elsewhere, excepting the making and assembling of such work as is made in the shop by heating processes that can not be fabricated on the job. When skeleton frames of reenforced steel, iron, or metal lath, or wire lath or mesh, are made and assembled in the shop by heating processes that can not be fabricated on the job, the same shall be handled after arrival at the site of the job solely by members of the party of the second part. On each job of reenforced concrete there shall be a foreman, who shall have charge of the metallic lathers and over the reenforced concrete, who shall be a member of the Metallic Lathers' Union in good standing, and who shall work with his tools when requested to do so when no concreting is going on.

The agreement between the Employing Metallic Furring and Lathing Association of New York and the Metallic Lathers' Union provides for the fabrication, assembling, and erection of all iron and steel furring and framing. This includes all furring in connection with metal lath and plaster ceilings, bracket work for ornamental effects, partition work and wall furring; also the applying and placing of wire lath, sheet, metal lath, and paper lath and plaster boards, corner beads, and metal grounds, and the fabricating of hangers, clips, and stirrups, whether made on the job or elsewhere, for the above specified work; this includes also the supports for arches of corrugated or other sheet metal.

AWARDS AND DECISIONS OF THE GENERAL ARBITRATION BOARD OF GREATER NEW YORK. Metallic Lathers' Union of New York and Employing Metal Furring and Lathing Asso- ciation v. New York League of Heat and Cold Insulation and Union of Seat and Cold Insulators-Erection of hanging ceiling framework on Wanamaker Building, New York City., 1905 (Conciliation and Arbitration in the Building Trades of Greater New York ... By Charles Henry Winslow, 1913)

Lathers and electricians circa 1910 - The Lather 1958

The Metallic Lather Union's web site at Metallic Lathers and Reinforcing Ironworkers

Asbestos Safety: Risk, Inspection, Assessment, and Abatement Considerations Finding and Removing Asbestos

If you have any suggestions, corrections, information, copies of documents, or photos that you would like to share with this page, please contact me at maggie@maggieblanck.com

Copyright by Maggie Land Blanck - This page was created in 2004 - Latest update, October 2019