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John Land★ (1818-1877) a Brief Biographical Sketch

Birth: Son of Charles Lewis Land and Anne Dinsdell, Leeds, Yorkshire, England 1818.

Occupation: Clothdrawer

First Marriage: Mary Dyson, Leeds, Yorkshire, England 1840

Children of first Marriage:

John (1841), Samuel (c. 1843), William (1847), Elizabeth Ann (1849), Charles Lewis (1852), James Dunford (1855)
Widowed: 1857

Second Marriage: Lydia Law, Gomersal, Birstall Parish, Yorkshire, England 1857

Children of Second Marriage:

Law (1858), Albert (1861), Percy (1862), Arthur (1864), Harry (1867), Adelaide (1868), Polly (1871), Walter (1873)
Death: Batley, Yorkshire, England 1877

John Land is my great great grandfather - Maggie Land Blanck


Birth, 1818, Leeds

John Land, the son of Charles Lewis Land and Anne Land of Leeds, was born on May 5, 1818 and baptized on July 12, 1818 at Queen Street Chapel, Leeds. (Queen Street Chapel Records LDS microfilm 0828139).

Queens Street Chapel was a congregational parish. Congregationalists were also called non-conformist or dissenters.

Anne Land was the former Anne Dinsdell.


Occupations of John Land and his father, Charles Land

On almost every documents that included an occupation John Land and his father, Charles Land, were listed as "cloth drawers".

I have found two exceptions for John Land:

  1. The 1842 Directory for Leeds listed John Land under Land as "Jno Land, cloth drser. 56 Bk. Nile st." Under the heading Cloth Dressers he was listed as " Land John, 63 Back Nile street".

  2. At his marriage in 1857, John Land was listed as a "cloth drapper".

Cloth Drawer

Throughout most of his life John Land was listed as a "cloth drawer" as was his father, Charles, before him.

I have found several definitions for "drawing" and "cloth drawer".

  • According to the New English Dictionary of Historical Principles a cloth drawer "draws or tenters the woolen cloth".

    Note: After woolen cloth was woven it was felled. This was a process of cleaning and shrinking the cloth. The wet cloth was then hung on tenterhooks to be shaped and dried.This work required strength and skill as the wet cloth was heavy and the tenterhooks were sharp.

  • Drawing= to remove defects from the finished cloth. Baines's Account of the Woolen Manufacture of England 1858.

  • Kenneth Rogers, in Warp and Weft 1930, said
    "After dressing, cloths were mended, (filling in holes caused by missing threads, called drawing ) brushed, and then pressed to give a gloss to the surface."
    The italics are mine.

  • Yet another definition for "drawing" (found in several sources) is the process of drawing the warp threads through the heddles. This is the first step in the actual weaving process. It allows the weaver to raise and lower different threads so that the weft can be woven into the warp.
Samuel Judd writing about the shoddy industry in Batley in the mid 1800s, said
"finishing or dressing the cloth is the next and last process of importance: it may be considered as including burling and drawing"
Although Judd described most of the steps and occupations in the process of making woolen cloth and shoddy, he never described the process of "drawing". He did say that there were 70 "drawers" in Batley in 1858 and that they made 30 shillings a week. This was one of the highest paid jobs connected with the shoddy business that Judd listed.

Judd also:

  • Listed "tenters" as a separate job. (Tenters were not as well paid as "drawers".)
  • Burlers removed any "burrs" from the finished cloth.

    Note: Extract from Volume II of "The Civil, Ecclesiastical, Literary, Commercial and Miscellaneous History of Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Dewsbury, Otley and the District within Ten Miles of Leeds" by Edward Parsons (1834) which examines the effect of industrial working conditions on public health.

    "Burlers, always females, are kept in an irksome posture, and often in rooms too small. We have found 106 in one chamber, long indeed, but very low, and deficient in ventilation. The spine is much bent forward. This inconvenience is however somewhat lessened by the practice of sitting and standing alternately. The eyes often fail when women continue the employ for years.

    THE INFLUENCE OF MANUFACTURES UPON PUBLIC HEALTH AND MORALS. Transcribed by John Lindley.

In a further attempt to determine exactly what a cloth drawer did I wrote to Museums and Libraries in England including Leeds Local Studies, The Bradford Industrial Museum, the Armley Mill Museum: They seem to think that a clother drawer worked in the finishing process:

"I'm afraid I'm not able to give as much time to your enquiry as I'd like but I would err towards your ancestors working in finishing. I suspect if they were drawing on the loom at an earlier stage they would be referred to as woollen or worsted drawers as the cloth hadn't been made yet. Finishing workers also tend to get paid highly, especially those who are burling and mending - sadly most of our text books are technical and ignore the manual processes quite often but I would suggest that as your ancestors were also dressers then drawer as mender is probably the most likely definition."

Neil Dowlan
Curator (Engineering)
Leeds Industrial Museum
Armley Mill

Volume II of "The Civil, Ecclesiastical, Literary, Commercial and Miscellaneous History of Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Dewsbury, Otley and the District within Ten Miles of Leeds" by Edward Parsons (1834) which examines the effect of industrial working conditions on public health states:
"Cloth-drawers, men who with needles draw up minute holes or repair injuries in the cloth, are kept almost all day with the spine curved, and the abdomen consequently compressed. In lettering, especially, the men are obliged to lean forward. Cloth-drawers sometimes sit, with short intervals only for meals, from five in the morning till eight at night. The air they breathe is often too confined; and occasionally, when working low-priced goods, they are annoyed with the dust from fullers' earth. Cloth-drawers are generally delicate, short-breathed, and subject especially to stomach complaints and headache. These indeed we found to affect in a greater or less degree more than one-half the men we examined. The eyes frequently become inflamed, particularly in drawing scarlet. No cloth-drawers live in health to a great age. Cloth- drawers earn high wages, and, though occasionally required to work closely and for an improper period, they have frequent intervals in which not Half the day is devoted to labour.

THE INFLUENCE OF MANUFACTURES UPON PUBLIC HEALTH AND MORALS. Transcribed by John Lindley, 2003.

In June 2011 I found THE CLOTH DRAWERS CRAFT in a Google Book from 1908 that gives a lenghty discription of the "art" of cloth drawing with illustrations.
This is about the only branch of textile finishing for which there is no literature. Articles more or less comprehensive have been written on every process with the exception of the drawer's art, and text books ignore it altogether. As it is a handicraft which requires a long apprenticeship and skill in manipulation, recipes and formulae cannot be given.

Cloth-drawing is confined solely to the heavy wool textiles for men's wear, and is of such importance that every finisher employs one or more skilled drawers in his works. In the days of plain cloths prior to fancies, tweeds, and worsteds, the drawer was of much greater importance than at the present time, owing to the ease with which damages are repaired in fancy fabrics. The drawer gets his name from the operation of drawing together with needle and cotton the rent in the cloth. This, although a highly skilled performance, is only one out of many duties that fall to him. The cloth drawer used formerly to embroider in fancy colored silks on the headings of the piece such descriptions as "Extra Superfine," "Woaded Black," "Pure Indigo," and so on. These letters extended across the entire width of the cloth, and were elaborated with scrolls and ornaments of all kinds. Many drawers could embroider these designs without the aid of a pattern and even without chalking out guide lines. Some of this hand work has come under the writer's notice that appears to have been executed by machinery. This branch of the drawer's art has been done away with altogether, even in the best of material, and whatever lettering is now wanted is stamped with a brass or copper die.

Formerly all cloth-drawers had to serve a five to seven year's apprenticeship, and at the present day clever men in this branch -

The most frequent task of the cloth-drawer is the drawing together of a clean tear or cut in a milled or raised cloth. This has to be done not only to repair the rent, but to make the mended place invisible, so that the cloth appears perfect. To effect this no stitches at all must be visible on either face or back of the cloth. The drawer goes about this in the manner shown in Fig.1. This represents a clean tear in a plain cloth, no ragged edges whatever being present. The black dots show where the needle is inserted; The dotted lines directions of the stitches. In dealing with a simple case of this sort. it is imperative that the stitches should be buried inside the fabric; this is done by reinserting the needle in the same hole it came out of meanwhile keeping the stitches slanted and close together. It is hardly necessary to say that the edges of the slit must be drawn close up to each other, but not too far, otherwise a ridge or pucker would make it visible. After drawing, the application of a little water followed by a warm iron renders the mend invisible. In some clothes such as meltons, or heavy raised goods, the deft application of a bit of wire card, mounted on a stick, serves to draw over the nap to cover the place. In the Generality of cases all drawer's work is done before the goods are pressed so that the latter operation helps to close up the fibers and makes the surface aalike.

In the case of a ragged hole as seen in Fig. 2, the procedure is slightly different, as shown in the diagram. In this the dotted lines show where a strip is cut clean out, leaving sharp edges which can be drawn close up to each other. The object of making this long slit is to avoid the pucker which would be the invariable result of drawing the edges of a small hole together. If the cloth be damped for a few inches around the slit and ironed, the cloth can easily be stretched until the edges of the cut meet.

With worsted cloths drawing is impossible, since the edges fray so quickly and make it useless attempting to hide the stitches. Very small holes, however, in these cloths, say up to the size of a pea, can be mended by a skilled drawer, but the method is on quite different lines to that described. To repair a hole in a worsted fabric it must be filled in somewhat like the darning of a stocking, that is, the missing warp and weft must be put in with the needle in the same manner as the cloth is woven. This means the design must be copied and each thread pass over or below its neighbor so as to reproduce the lost part. Simple weaves such as twills are by far the easiest to fill in; while those which have long floating threads are most difficult. Speaking generally, those designs which more nearly approach the common basket weave are easiest to repair. Where all the warp is shown on the face the work is extremely difficult, and there is no use wasting time over a fault which will easily be noticed and strung.

The most common holes in worsted which are capable of being drawn up are those caused by weavers' knots. The knot itself is where a broken thread has been pieced together, and when these come under the blades of the cutting machine, a tiny piece is nipped out of the cloth. Small holes of this kind allow the pattern to be worked in by the needle, where larger ones would show. It is necessary to fill up the design with thread taken from the same piece of cloth, in order to get an exact match of color and material. This is done by carefully drawing out a few inches of the warp close up to one of the lists. The warp is always used to fill up the gap, as it is stronger and easier to handle, the weft being too tender to work. In commencing, the missing warp is always filled in first, inserting the needle about half an inch from the hole and burying the thread inside the cloth. After putting in the warp threads, the ends are left to project a little until all the threads are placed in position. When complete these loose ends are cut off close, and the application of water and an iron causes them to contract and bury themselves in the fabric. Both, warp and weft threads are put in from the back of the cloth as being less likely to be seen, and care is taken that the needle enters and emerges a little distance away from the preceding thread. This precaution prevents the formation of a thick lumpy place, and distributes the threads over a bigger area. Figs. 3 and 4 show respectively the appearance of the warp threads from the face of the cloth after insertion, and the warp threads with their projecting ends on the back. Many drawers skilled to the faced and plain cloth trade are of no use whatever for the mending of worsteds, as this requires, besides good sight and a steady hand, a quick perception of how the design is formed in the weave.

Where the burling and mending of grey goods is carried on, this department, although worked by female labor, is frequently under the supervision of a clever cloth drawer. This arrangement is a good one, for if the man is fully up to his duties much unnecessary work can be saved as he knows what will and what will not show when the cloth is finished. Only a few examples of the work which comes under the drawer's liands can be given here; he is practically the textile surgeon for all structural defects which mechanical processes cannot put right. In burling and mending grey worsteds, it is customary for the drawer to pull these over a perch against a good light. Seen in this fashion missing warp threads which require replacing with the needle show up very plain. It is usual to mark these places with colored chalk to call the mender's attention; and this practice sometimes causes great trouble to the dyer. If ordinary crayons are used these marks easily come out in boiling; but it occasionally happens that crayons containing wax or grease are used. Wax is much worse than grease, since it does not saponify, and to the writer's knowledge many stains have been caused by the wax acting as a resist.

Other defects, such as over-raising, with a disturbance of the face of the cloth, may be cured in some special cases by damping the fabric and working in very fine flocks, but this is only applicable to plain cloths with a rough finish. Fig. 5 shows a common finishing fault, caused by the cloth missing one of the hooks in tentering. This may be due to the pins being defective or a gill being missing, but the result is a semi-circular shrinkage near the selvage. The drawer is able quickly to make this right by damping the cloth all around the place and pressing with a hot iron, while at the same time he stretches out the gap to the normal width. The pressing which follows effectually covers up the place and makes it indistinguishable from the rest of the fabric.

Fig. 6 shows the method of dealing with a damaged selvage. In this case an irregular jagged cut has been made through the list and into the cloth. To cure it, a long slanting piece is cut out through the dotted lines; the list is also carefully cut off on the lines shown. Then the list is neatly sewn on again and the semi-circular place pulled into position. Should the list require supplementing, a little is cut from one end of the cloth, where its absence is not so conspicuous. Damages caused by tenter hooks running inside the cloth, as well as creases from running double, are all jobs for the drawer. These, with others of the same nature, can generally be cured by the local application of steam and heat, wool being very plastic under these influences. Apart from inserting missing threads, etc., in grey goods, the drawer's work is done after all the finishing processes, except pressing and steaming. This is highly necessary, as many processes, particularly the wet ones, would tend to disturb the mended defects by causing Shrinkage in places. Missing warp threads are put in before either crabbing or dyeing, and a little loose end left to the thread to allow of its shrinking. Slubs, which are very thick irregularities in the threads, require very careful treatment in the grey. These are carefully thinned down with a pair of burling irons, so as to leave the substance of the thread behind.

Another very delicate operation is the covering of laid crimps in fine worsteds; this, of course, is only resorted to where the fabric shows these marks for a yard or two, say, at one end. Laid crimps are the dark creasemarks which sometimes are formed when the cloth is allowed to lay while hot. These are no detriment whatever to the cloth, nor do they show when made up into garments. Over the perch, however, they appear as thin dark lines across the fabric in all directions, and their presence may cause a string to be put in. To cover these the drawer carefully goes over each crimp with a pencil of French chalk having a very fine point. To do this successfully the cloth must be stretched out at full width over a perch, and a strong light and steady hand are requisite. The mark left by the pencil must not extend beyond the crimp itself or it will show and make matters worse. Just sufficient chalk is left on to bring the dark line to the shade of the adjacent par^ and no more. This can be done with any shade of cloth, but the application requires great judgment and skill.

Textile world record, Volume 35, 1908

A Cloth Drawer was also know as a Fine Drawer". In speaking of impurities and foreign particles in the fleece:

If twisted into the thread and wrought with the substance of the cloth they become the object of the burler's notice, who leaves, for every particle which is extracted, a hole in the piece to be repaired at the fulling mill, or by the nicer operation of the fine drawer.

An essay on wool: containing a particular account of the English fleece ... By John Luccock, 1809

Another reference to the drawer's occupation as "fine drawer":
The cloth might probably at this stage be examined by the fine drawer and finishing burler, after which" it is pressed and steamed."

Woollen and worsted cloth manufacture: being a practical treatise for the ... By Roberts Beaumont, 1899

It was also known as "Reentering", "rent mending", "invisible mending" and "finishing".

Cloth Dresser

John Land was listed in the 1842 Leeds Directory as a Cloth Dresser.

Cloth Dressers were woolen workers who cropped the nap of the cloth after it was fulled.

This was one of the last steps in the process and it is quite possible that the Lands were both dressing and "drawing" the cloth.

"Cloth-dressers or Croppers, working at the shears, seem to be little injured by their employment; they are, however, too much crowded, and hence they occasionally suffer from disorders of the stomach. Affections, termed rheumatic, are also rather prevalent. We found few cloth-dressers aged; indeed in one large establishment they were almost all lads. This, however, results chiefly from the introduction of, "cutters" or the dressing cloth by machinery, in which old men are rarely employed. By the confinement, indeed, rather than by the nature of the occupation, is health affected."

THE INFLUENCE OF MANUFACTURES UPON PUBLIC HEALTH AND MORALS. Transcribed by John Lindley, 2003.

Cloth Draper

John Land was listed as a cloth drapper at this second marriage in 1857. I believe that a "cloth draper" was a clothier or woolen cloth maker.

The Lands as Cloth Drawers

A 1822 Gazetteer of York County does not have any listings for Charles Land. John was only 4 years old at the time. There were, in fact, no listings for Cloth Drawers under a heading of Cloth Drawers. But there were a number listings under individual names. There were categories for: Cloth Dressers, Cloth Friezers and Cloth Glossers listed in Leeds in 1822. Cloth dressers AKA as shearers and croppers cut the nap of the woven cloth. Friesers raise the nap on the cloth. Glossers smooth the cloth by dragging it over hot irons.

Neither John nor Charles Land were listed in the 1837 Gazetteer in Leeds. Again there was no separate listing under PROFESSIONS for Cloth Drawers, although there were individuals listed as such.

Class, sect, and party: the making of the British middle class: Leeds, 1820 to 1850 By Robert John Morris states that there were 85 cloth drawers in Leeds in the 1834 Trade directory. I do not know if this included Charles Land.

John Land was listed as a cloth dresser at Back Nile Street in the 1842 Leeds Directory.

In the 1853 Leeds Directory there was no listing for Cloth Drawers.

I believe that cloth drawers were master tradesmen who served a seven year apprenticeship. I have not determined if they worked on their own premises or if they worked in the mills. Since there did not seem to be a need for advertisement in the trade gazetteers, I would assume that they worked in the mills.

I also have the impression that cloth drawers may have worked in a factory setting as "overlookers" of a group of burlers who were mostly females.

In the USA fine drawers worked at the fulling mill.

It appears that the cloth drawer worked closely with the cloth dressers. And he may have worked in the cloth dressers shop.


Literacy

John Land was literate enough to sign his name at the times of his marriages and the births of his children. His first wife, Mary Dyson, signed with her mark, indicating that she could not write. His second wife, Lydia Law, was literate enough to sign her name at the time of her marriage and the births of several of her children.

Note: There were people who could read but could not write.


The Marriage of John Land and Mary Dyson, 1840 Leeds

John Land, full age, bachelor, clothdrawer, of Holbeck, son of Charles Lewis Land, clothdrawer, and Mary Dyson, full age, spinster, Bell Street, daughter of Samuel Dyson, cloth dresser were married in the parish church of Leeds November 11, 1840. (Civil marriage record)

The copy of the civil registration does not include the signatures but indicates that John Land signed his own name and Mary Dyson signed with her mark. The witnesses were Thomas Hoyle and R. H. Pickard.

In July 2011 (thanks to Ancestry.com) I was able to obtain a copy of the Parish Record.

Mary Dyson

The 1851 census indicates that Mary was the daughter of Hannah Dyson and that she was born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire circa 1820. The marriage certificate indicates that she was the daughter of Samuel Dyson, cloth dresser.

Samuel and Hannah Dyson of Huddersfield had:

  1. Martha of Samuel Dyson and Hannah Hoyle, Huddersfield 6 January 1805, Huddersfield, St Peter.
  2. Sarah of Samuel Dyson and Hannah Hoyle, Huddersfield, Huddersfield St Peter, August 1806 born July 18th.
  3. John of Samule Dyson and Hannah Hoyle Huddersfield 25 Dec 1811, Huddersfield St. Peter.
  4. Joseph Dyson, December 25, 1813, of Samuel and Hannah, Huddersfield, cloth dresser, St Peter's Huddersfield
  5. Ann, November 5, 1815, of Samuel and Hannah, Huddersfield, cloth dresser, St Peter's Huddersfield
  6. Elizabeth, July 24, 1818, of Samuel and Hannah, Leeds cloth dresser, St Peter's Huddersfield
  7. Mary circa 1819 based on age in 1851 census and age at death. Notes: There is only a year and 7 months (19 months) between the baptism of Elizabeth in July 1818 and the baptism of William in February 1820. The marriage record for Mary clearly states that her father was Samuel Dyson, cloth dresser. In 1851 census indicates that her mother was, Hannah. Here birth was listed as Huddersfield. Her year of birth from census and death record was 1820±. Is it possible that the baby baptized Elizabeth in 1818 was called Mary? It is nearly impossible to have three children in 19 months.
  8. William , February 20, 1820, St Peter's Huddersfield

Samuel Dyson married Hannah Hoyle, August 13, 1804, St Peter's Huddersfield. Both made their mark.

Note: Thomas Hoyle was one of the witnesses at the marriage of John Land and Mary Dyson,


Children of John Land, and Mary Dyson

John Land and Mary Dyson had:

  1. John Land (1841)

    Birth:

    Civil Record: John Land, the son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Mary Land, formerly Dyson, was born on March 14, 1841 at 36 West Street, Leeds.

    Note: West Street was in West Leeds.

    West street, St Paul's street A LIST OF STREETS, SQUARES, COURTS, LANES, &c. IN THE TOWN AND SUBURBS OF LEEDS FOR 1853.

    To see a photo of West Street go to Where the Lands Lived in Leeds now or at the bottom of the page.

    Church Record: I did not find the baptismal record for John Land as of July 2011. I ever browsed the Leeds St. Peter records.

    Occupation: cloth finisher, 1861

    1851 Census: He was listed, age 9, in the 1851 census in Batley with his parents.

    1861 census: He was listed in Batley in E. D. 7, Parwell Lane, John Land, boarder, unmarried, age 20 cloth finisher, born in Leeds living with the family of Squire Senior, woolen weaver, age 40 (?), born in Dewsbury, his wife, Fanney, age 50, born in Batley, their son John, age 20 (?) factory hand card fetter (?), born in Batley, and their daughter Dorothy, age 16, woolen power loom weaver, born in Batley.

    Note: This was not listed by Ancestry.

    1871 Census: He was not listed in the 1871 census on Ancestry.

    1881 Census: He was not listed in the 1881 English census

    Other Censuses: He was not listed in the 1880 or 1881 censuses in the US or Canada

    1891 and 1901 Censuses in England: Not listed.

    Marriage: ?? Not obvious on Free BMD

    Death: Not listed by Free BMD between 1871 and 1881

  2. Sam Land (1843-1930) and Mary Ann Law Emigrated to Philadelphia

    Sam Land married, Mary Ann Law, the sister of his father's second wife, Lydia Law.

    Birth:

    Civil Record: Sam Land, boy, son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Mary Land formerly Dyson, 13 Cherry Tree Yard, Kirkgate, North District of Leeds, 16th January 1843.

    Note: Cherry Tree yard, 58 KirkgateA LIST OF STREETS, SQUARES, COURTS, LANES, &c. IN THE TOWN AND SUBURBS OF LEEDS FOR 1853.

    I can't find Cherry Tree Yard on a current or 1908 map of Leeds. I do, however, have a picture of it from leodis. Go to Where the Lands Lived in Leeds now or at the bottom of the page.

    Church Record: Sam son of John and Mary Land Kirkgate, Cloth drawer born Jan. 11? 1843 baptized February 12, 1843, Leeds St. Peter

    Occupation: Tailor 1861, tailor 1863, tailor 1871

    1861 Census: Batley, E.D. 11, "Samuel" Land, (I cannot read relationship to head of household), unmarried, age 18, tailor app, born in Leeds, was living with Thomas Pickering, head of household, age 26, master tailor, born in Batley, his wife, Emma , age 23, born in Batley, their two children, Emily Law, daughter, age 4, born in Batley, Maria, daughter, age 2, born in Batley, Mary Ann Law, sister-in-law, age 15, born in Batley, and Joshua Deacon, boarder, age 42, woolen spinner, born in Bradford.

    Notes: Emma Pickering was Emma Law the sister to Lydia Law who was Sam Land's stepmother.

    Marriage: Sam Land, 20 years, bachelor, tailor, of Batley, son of John Land, cloth drawer married Mary Ann Law, age 18, spinster, of Batley, daughter of William Law (deceased), cloth weaver, at the Register Office, District of Dewsbury on November 7, 1863. The witnesses were Thomas Pickering and William Buckley. (Civil Record).

    Notes:

    • Mary Ann Law was the sister of Samuel Land's step mother, Lydia Law, the second wife of John Land.
    • Thomas Pickering was the husband of Mary Ann Law's sister, Emma.
    • The copy of the civil registration does not include the original signature of Sam Land, but indicates that he signed his own name and that Mary Ann Law signed with her mark. When Mary Ann's sister, Lydia, married John Land the record indicated that she signed her name.

    Children:

      I cannot find baptisms for their children in the Batley Parish records as of July 2011.

    1. John William Land (1864-) and Ellen F Leech
      Birth: John William circa 1864, Batley
      Further Records: Immigrated to Philadelphia Pa USA and married there.
    2. Alice, circa 1867, Batley
    3. George Henry (1869 to ??) and Laura Weever
      Birth: George Henry circa 1869, Batley
      Further Records: Immigrated to Philadelphia Pa USA and married there.
    4. Herbert Land (1870-) and Grace Lydia Gurney
      Birth: Herbert, 1870, Batley
      Further Records: Immigrated to Philadelphia Pa USa and married there.
    5. Charles D Land (1873-) and Caroline F Wrench
      Birth: Charles D, 1873, Philadelphia
      Further Records: Married in Philadelphia.
    6. Frederick, 1875, Philadelphia
    7. Walter, 1877, Philadelphia
    8. Ann Marie, 1879, Philadelphia
    1871 census in England: Beck Lane Batley, Sam Land, head, age 28, tailor, Mary Ann wife, age 25, John Wm son age 6, Alice Maud daughter age 4, George Henry son age 2, Herbert son age 2 mo, Elizabeth Ann Land, visitor, age 21, weaver. all born Batley.

    Note: Elizabeth Ann was Sam's sister.

    Immigration: Circa 1871 Sam and Mary Ann Land immigrated to Philadelphia. For more information on Sam and Mary Ann Land in Philadelphia see below or go to The Lands in Philadelphia now.

  3. Charles Land ✟ died as an infant

    Birth: 1845, per death record

    Charles Land Date of Registration: Apr-May-Jun 1845 Registration district: Leeds Inferred County: Yorkshire - West Riding Volume: 23 Page: 46

    Death: 15th August 1846, Charles Land male age 18 months, son of John Land Cloth Dresser, teething convulsions, not certified, no medical attendant, John Land, present at the death, 3 Bradbury Yard, West Street Leeds, 17 August 1846.

  4. William Land (1847-1884) and Hannah Collier

    Birth:

    Civil Record: William the son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Mary Land, formerly Dyson, was born April 28, 1847, Bottom of Back Lane, Wakefield. The birth was reported by his father, John Land. Note: Back Lane runs parallel to Westgate.

    Church Record: I have not found a baptismal record for William Land, as of July 2011.

    Marriage: William Land, age 23, tailor, of Batley, son of John Land, cloth dresser, married Hannah Collier, of Batley, daughter of Benjamin Collier, mason, on August 23, 1870 in the parish church in Batley. William Land signed his name. Hannah Collier signed with her mark. The witnesses were Thomas Pickering and John Hodgson, who signed with his mark. (Civil record and Parish record).

    Notes:

    • Thomas Pickering was the husband of Emma Law, the sister of William's step mother, Lydia Law Land.

    Occupations: Tailor, mill hand

    Children:

    1. John James born 1871 Batley (from 1871 census) ✟ died as an infant

      Death: Philadelphia, Pa USA

      John James Land, age 1 yr 5 mos, died July 16, 1872, buried July 18, 1872, parents, William and Anna Land (LDS film #531270, Deaths, St Timothys, Roxborough, Pa)

      Notes:

      • John James died within a few days of reaching the United States. He had arrived in NYC on July 8 1872.
      • Anna and Hannah were names that were commonly interchanged
      • St Timothys, Roxborough was the church that William's brother, Sam and his wife, Mary Ann Law Land, attended and where their children were baptized, wed and buried.

    2. Benjamin Land (1873-) Clara Oldroyd, Amy Wilkenson and Harriett Brown

      Birth: circa 1873 in "America" - most likely Philadelphia.

      Occupation: Mechanic, 1893, Insurance Agent, 1896, 1899

      Residence: Batley (1896) and The Mount, Birstall (1901)

      Trip to America 1893: Benjamin Land age 20, mechanic, born in USA from Liverpool to New York City final destination Philadelphia 13 September 1893

      Marriage 1896: Benjamin Land, age 23, single, Insurance Agent, of Batley, son of William Land, (dead) mill hand, married Clara Oldroyd, single, age 21, weaver, of Beeston, father, Henry Oldroyd, painter, witnesses, Elliott Colbyer (?) and Sarah Ellen Wilkeson, April 4, 1896 (Parish Records LDS film #1542210)

      Death of Clara: Deaths Dec 1896 Land, Clara, 22, Dewsbury, 9b, page 386 (Free BMD)

      Marriage 2: 1897 St Paul's Morley, Aug 11, Benjamin Lanf age 25, widower, Insurance agent St. Pauls Morely son of William Land deceased tailor, to Amy Wilkenson age 24 spinster, St Paul Morley, daughter of John William Wilkenson, Insurance agent. By banns. Both signed. His signature is the same as the marriage to Clara Oldroyd and Hariett Brown. Witnesses John William and Susan Wilkenson and James Dunford Land.

      Children:

        Clifford Jun 1898

        Civil Record: Births Jun 1898, Land, Clifford, Dewsbury, 9b, 598 (Free BMD)
        Death in WWI: ??????? Clifford Land Birth Place: Birstall, Yorks Residence: Newmarket, Cambridge Death Date: 23 Mar 1918 Death Location: France & Flanders Enlistment Location: Newmarket Rank: Rifleman Regiment: Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own) Battalion: 2nd Battalion Number: S/37297 Type of Casualty: Killed in action Theatre of War: Western European Theatre

      Death of Amy Wilkinson Land: Amy Land Estimated Birth Year: abt 1874 Date of Registration: Jan-Feb-Mar 1899 Age at Death: 25 Registration district: Dewsbury Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume: 9b Page: 449

      Marriage: In the 1901 census he was listed with a 19 year old wife named Harriett

      Land, Benjamin, Brown, Harriett, Dewsbury, 9b, 1270, Sep 1899 (Free BMD)

      1899 Parish Church Birstall, July 5, Benjamin Land age 26 widower insurance agent, Blackburn Road, Birstall, son of William Land deceased tailor to Harriett Brown age 18 spinster, Church St Peter, Birstall daughter of Edward Brown wholesale butcher. Both signed. Witness Edward Brown.

      Children:

      1. Elisie 1901 & 1911 (from censuses)
        Births Jun 1900, Land, Elsie, Dewsbury, 9b, 643 (Free BMD)
      2. Phyllis 1903 (from 1911 census)

      1881 Census: With his father.

      1891 Census: Not listed

      1901 Census: Benjamin Land, Birstall The Mount, Benjamin Land head, age 28, life insurance, born America F. S. USA, Harriett wife age 19, born Leeds, Clifford son age 2 born Morley, Elsie daughter 11 months, born Birstall

      1908: Benjamin Land, Camberley Street 264 Dewsbury road to Rowland place South side #24 Land, Benjamin, insurance agent. (1908 Kelly's Directory, Leeds) Listed several ways.

      Lands in the English Censuses

      1911, Hunslet: LAND, BENJAMIN, HEAD, MARRIED, M, 38 INSURANCE AGENT, U S A RESIDENT, LAND, HARRIET, WIFE, MARRIED, 11, F, 29 HOUSEWIFE, YORKS LEEDS, LAND, CLIFFORD, SON, M, 12, SCHOOL YORKS, MARFAY, (Morley?) LAND, ELSIE, DAUGHTER, F, 10, SCHOOL, YORKS, BIRSTALL, LAND, PHYLLIS, DAUGHTER, F, 8, SCHOOL, YORKS, BIRSTALL, 24 CAMBERLEY STREET HUNSLET LEEDS County Yorkshire West Riding District Hunslet Subdistrict Hunslet Enumeration District 33 Parish Hunslet

    3. John W. born circa 1875, Batley (1881 Census) ✟ died as a child

      1881 Census: With his father.

      Death: John William Land, age 8, March 1883, Dewsbury 9b 416 Deaths

    4. Fred, born circa 1877, Batley (1881 Census) ✟ died as a child

      Death: Fred Land, age 7, Wood Wele buried July 13, 1884 (Batley Parish Records)

    1861 Census: With his father and step mother in Batley.

    1871 Census: William Land was listed in Batley in E.D. 11, page 36 as follows:

    • William Land, head, age 23, occupation, tailor, born in Wakefield, Yorkshire.
    • Hannah, wife, age 20, occupation, power loom weaver, Honley, Yorkshire.
    • John J. , son, age 2 months, born in Batley, Yorkshire.

    William Land in "America": William and Hannah spent some time in Philadelphia and returned to England.

    • Immigration: William Land, labourer, age 24 arrived in NYC on the Nevada, 8 March 1872. His wife Hannah, age 27, arrived in New York on 8 July 1872 with her son, John James Land, infant, on the Atlantic.
    • Records in Philadelphia: The only record I have found for William Land in Philadelphia the death of John James Land in 1872

  5. Since they immigrated to the US in 1872 and had a son born in Batley in 1875, the longest that they could have been in Philadelphia was three years.

    Return to England: William and Hannah Land returned to Batley by 1875 and were listed with three children in the 1881 Census which indicates that William Land had:

    • Benjamin, born in "America" in 1873
    • John W., born in Batley in 1875.

    1881 Census in Batley: William Land and his family were listed at 191 Wilson Building, Bradford Road, Township of Batley, Parliamentary District of Dewsbury, Parish of St. Thomas Church as follows:

    • William, head married, age 33, cloth finisher, born in Batley, Yorkshire.
    • Hannah, wife, age 37, born in Honley, Yorkshire
    • Benjamin, son, age 8, scholar, born in America
    • John W., son, age 6, scholar, born in Batley, Yorkshire
    • Fred, son, age 4, scholar, born in Batley, Yorkshire
    • Elizabeth Collier, mother-in-law, age 63, born Honley

    Death of William Land: William Land age 35, tailor, of Wood Wele, was buried April 27, 1884 Batley Parish.

    Death of Ann/Hannah Collier Land: Hannah Land Birth Date: abt 1852 Date of Registration: Oct-Nov-Dec 1941 Age at Death: 89 Registration district: Dewsbury Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume: 9b Page: 749??????

    1891 Census in Batley: Did not find Hannah

    1901 Census: I did not find any listings for Ann (Hannah) Collier Land in the 1901 indexes on line.

  6. Elizabeth Ann Land

    Birth:

    Civil Record: Elizabeth Ann, the daughter of John Land, cloth drawer, and Mary, formerly Dyson, was born on November 8, 1849, Westgate Common, Alverthorpe with Thornes. The birth was registered on December 12, 1849 by Mary Land, mother, who signed with her mark.

    Church Record: I did not find the baptismal record for Elizabeth Land as of July 2011.

    Further Records: I do not know what happened to Elizabeth Ann. The last real record I have for her was in the 1871 census with her brother, Sam.

    However: It is possible that Elizabeth Land also immigrated to Philadelphia. The Records for St Timothy's Parish in the Roxborough section of Philadelphia have a very limited number of entries for the name Land. This include:

    • The death record of John, the son of William and Anna
    • The baptismal, death and marriage records of the family of Samuel Land and Mary Ann Law Land
    • A baptismal record in which Elizabeth Land was the sponsor.
      Eva of Thomas and Isabel Wailes, born March 5, 1884, baptized April 20, 1884, sponsors, Robert Kaye and Elizabeth Land (LDS film 0531270, Baptisms, page 51-52)
      Notes:
      • no immigration listed for Elizabeth on ancestry
      • Samuel and Mary Ann Land did not have any children named Elizabeth

  7. Charles Lewis Land (1852-1942), Hannah Gomersal and Eleanor Swire Shuttleworth

    Birth:

    Civil Record: Charles Lewis Land, the son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Mary Land, formerly Dyson, was born on May 24, 1852, Westgate Common, Thornes. The birth was reported by John Land, father.

    Church Record: I did not find the baptismal record for Charles Land.

    Marriage: Charles Lewis Land, age 24, bachelor, warehouse man, George's Terrace, Field Lane, Batley, son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Hannah Gomersal, age 21, spinster, Batley Field Hill, daughter of David Gomersal (deceased), woolen spinner, were married December 24, 1876 in the Independent Chapel in Batley. They both signed their names. Witnesses were: Alfred Wildsmith (?) and Eliza Hirst. (Civil Record)

    Occupation: 1876 Warehouse man, 1891 General dyer and cleaner, 1901 insurance agent

    Children:

    1. Herbert Lewis son born Batley circa 1878
      Marriage: January 4 1908 Herbert Lewis Land age 30 bachelor stoker Victoria Road, son of Charles Lewis Land, insurance agent to Clara Amie Swire 21 spinster machinist Fell Lane daughter of Henry Swire clogger church of St Peter, Keighley, both signed. Witnesses Wilfred Land and Emily Baneroft.
    2. Amy Ethel born Warmley, Gloucester circa 1880
      Marriage: David Feather
      Amy Ethel Land Date of Registration: Jan-Feb-Mar 1903 Registration district: Keighley Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume Number: 9a Page Number: 259, FreeBMD
      David Feather
      Children:
      1. Mabel
      2. Albert
      3. Thomas
      1911: FEATHER, DAVID, HEAD, MARRIED, M 34, HAY AND STRAW WAREHOUSE ASSISTANT, YORKSHIRE, STANBURY, FEATHER, AMY ETHEL WIFE MARRIED 8 F 31 YORKSHIRE WALMSLEY, FEATHER, MABEL DAUGHTER F 5 YORKS KEIGHLEY, FEATHER, ALBERT SON M 4 YORKS KEIGHLEY, FEATHER, THOMAS SON M 6 MONTHS YORKS KEIGHLEY,
    3. Gertrude born Fishponds, Gloucester circa 1882
      Gertrude Land Date of Registration: Oct-Nov-Dec 1881 Registration district: Barton Regis Inferred County: Gloucestershire Volume: 6a Page: 194
      Marriage: Gertrude Land Spouse Surname: Sharp Date of Registration: Apr-May-Jun 1914 Registration district: Keighley Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume Number: 9a Page Number: 459, FreeBMD
      Sam Sharp by cross reference.
    4. Wilfred, born Keighley circa 1885
      Marriage: Wilfrid Land Spouse Surname: Thomas Date of Registration: Oct-Nov-Dec 1914 Registration district: Keighley Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume Number: 9a Page Number: 391 FreeBMD
      Death: Wilfred Land Birth Date: abt 1886 Date of Registration: Oct-Nov-Dec 1945 Age at Death: 59 Registration district: Keighley Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume: 9a Page: 246
    5. Percy born Keighley October 1888 Free BMD
      Marriage: September 24, 1912, parish of Keighley Percy Land age 24, bachelor, clerk, 107 Devonshire St Keighley, son of Charles Lewis Land time keeper, to Margaret Binns, age 31 spinster, percher 4 Ethel Street Beechcliffe, Keighley daughter of Jospeh Binns joiner, both signed. Witnesses Robert Binns and Mary Ann Holmes.
      Death: Private Percy Land. 38124. 2nd Battalion the Yorkshire Regiment. Son of Charles Lewis Land and Hannah Land, of Keighley, Yorks. Killed 5 April 1917. Aged 28. Born Keighley, Enlisted Keighley. Buried WIMEREUX COMMUNAL CEMETERY. The Yorkshire Regiment, First World War
      More: Percy Land, Birth Place: Keighley, Death Date: 5 Apr 1917, Death Location: France & Flanders, Enlistment Location: Keighley, Rank: Private, Regiment: Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own (Yorkshire Regiment), Battalion: 2nd Battalion, Number: 38124, Type of Casualty: Died of wounds, Theatre of War: Western European Theatre
    6. David Edward Land born Keighley July 1892 FREEBMD
      Marriage: David E Land Spouse Surname: Cooper Date of Registration: Jul-Aug-Sep 1921 Registration district: Keighley Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume Number: 9a Page Number: 463 Freed BMD
      Spouse surname Cooper - Beatrice I Cooper by cross reference.

    Addresses: Batley in 1878, Gloucester from at least 1880 to 1882, Keighley 1885 to 1901

    1891 Census: In Keighley see Lands in the Censuses

    1901 Census: In Keighley see Lands in the Censuses

    1906 Marriage: Charles Lewis Land Date of Registration: Jul-Aug-Sep 1906 Registration district: Keighley Inferred County: Yorkshire West Riding Volume Number: 9a

    to the widow Eleanor Swire Shuttleworth

    1911 Census: Charles Lewis Land, age 57 storekeeper in Eletruck???? works, born Wakefield, Elenor Land, wife, 52, domestic duties, born Keighley, married 5 years, John Swire Shuttleworth, son age 23, single, carpenter building Sarah Elizabeth Shuttleworth, daughter age 21 single, spinner, woolen manufacturer, Ada Winefred Shuttleworth daughter age 20, woolen manufacturer, George Henry Shuttleworth son age 19, overlooker, woollen manufacturer, children born Uetenhage ??? Cape Colony.

    Question: Why were Charles Land's own children, Gertrude, Wilfred, Percy and David not living with him? None of them married until after 1912.

    1. Gertrude in Keighley with BINNS, LUGDEN, HEAD, MARRIED, 63, CARETAKER, KEIGHLEY IN YORKSHIRE, BINNS, ANN, WIFE, MARRIED, 37, F 64, HOUSEHOLD DUTIE,S BURLEY IN WHARFEDALE, BINNS, EMMA JANE, DAUGHTER, SINGLE, F 25, BREAD BAKER, KEIGHLEY IN YORKSHIRE, LAND, GERTRUDE BOARDER, SINGLE, F 29, TWISTER WORSTED YARNS, BRISTOL - GLOUCESTERSHIRE

    2. Wilfred Land, single boarder age 27, machine turner, born Bristol Glostershire boarder in Keighly, Yorkshire, NIXON, MARY ANN, HEAD, WIDOW, F 51, SPOFFORTH YORKS, NIXON, ERNEST ALBERT, SON, SINGLE, M 23, LABOURER, AT HEADINGLEY LEEDS, NIXON, ARTHUR, SON, SINGLE, M 19, LABOURER AT HEADINGLEY LEEDS, TAYLOR, EDWARD BENJAMIN, SON - IN - LAW, MARRIED , M 27, LETTER CARRIER, ALTOFTS NORMANTON, TAYLOR, BEATRICE ANNIE, DAUGHTER, MARRIED 5, F 28, HEADINGLEY LEEDS, NUTALL, DANIEL, BOARDER, WIDOWER, M 49, DYER, GREAT HORTON BRADFORD, LAND, WILFRED BOARDER, SINGLE, M 27, MACHINE TURNER, BRISTOL GLOSTERSHIRE

    3. Percy in Keighley with MOLE, ALBERT, HEAD, MARRIED, M 42, TURNER LOOMS, YORKS HALL, MOLE, HETTIE, WIFE, MARRIED, 13 F 34, YORKS KEIGHLEY, MOLE, JAMES WILLIAM, SON, M 12, REACHER IN YORKS KEIGHLEY, MOLE, MARTHA MARION, DAUGHTER, F 10, YORKS KEIGHLEY, MOLE, WILLIAM SWIRE SON, M 6 YORKS KEIGHLEY, LAND, PERCY BOARDER, SINGLE, M 22, PATTERS CUTTER DRESS GOODS, YORKS KEIGHLEY

    4. David Land in Keighley with BECKWITH, CHARLOTTE, HEAD, WIDOW, F 48, SKIPTON YORK'S, LARGE, EDWARD TOM, BOARDER, SINGLE, M 25, GOLF PROFESSIONAL, WARLEY WORC'S, LARGE, HUBERT JOSHUA, BOARDER, SINGLE, M 17 GOLF PROFESSIONAL, WARLEY WORC'S LAND, EDWARD DAVID BOARDER, SINGLE, M 18, COTTON TWISTER AND LOOMER, KEIGHLEY YORKS

    Death: Charles L Land birth c 1853 death March quarter 1942 Keighley FreeBMD

    More on the Shuttleworths: In October 2011 Ian wrote that Charles Lewis Land was the second husband of Elenore Shuttleworth (nee Swire).

    Her first husband was Harry Shuttleworth, and there were four children: Ada Winifred, George Henry, Sarah Elizabeth Shuttleworth, and John Swire. The family story/myth was that Sarah & Harry went to Cape Colony as missionaries, had a daughter out there, and that Sarah & daughter (Sarah Elizabeth Shuttleworth) returned without Harry & he was never seen again.

    BUT, it seems he returned and was buried in Otley churchyard where there is a headstone naming him, his wife Ellenor, and TWO of their children (Ada & George). Sarah Elizabeth Shuttleworth was buried in Idle where my family originated. So the mystery is whether he died in Africa and was brought home for burial, or died for some reason on arriving home to UK. Jan 23 1899 was the recoded date of his death.

    FIND A GREAVE (added by W Sutherland, July 2011) contains a picture of the tombstone of Harry Shuttleworth. Which reads:

    In Loving Memory
    Harry Shuttleworth
    of Exley He--
    (Late of Ultenhage, South Africa)
    Who died Jan 23rd 1899
    Aged 42 years
    Also of Ellenor, his beloved wife
    who died Jan 8th 1915
    Aged 56 years
    Also of Ada Winifred
    Their daughter
    Who died July 12 1953
    aged 62 years
    Also
    George Henry Shuttleworth
    Her brother
    Who died Dec 7th 19-3
    Aged 61 years
    A DAD WORTHY OF REMEMBRANCE

    Later Lands in Keighley:

    You may be interested to know that my mother's cleaning lady was "Mrs. Stell", and she lived on Fell Lane. There was also a mill on the North Beck (Stell's Mill), which was burned down around 1950. One of my school-friends married a Jean Land, so there were still Stells and Lands in Keighley in the 1950's-60's.

    John Newhill, January 2008

  8. James Dunford Land (1855-1932) and Mary Elizabeth Mickelthwaite

    Birth:

    Civil Record: James Dunford Land, the son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Mary Land, formerly Dyson, was born March 8, 1855, Carlinghow, Batley. The birth was reported by Mary Land, mother, who signed with her mark.

    Church Record: His baptism was not listed in the Bishop's Transcript for Batley parish.

    Marriage: James Dunford Land, age 21, bachelor, book binder, 21 Booth Street, Stockport, son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Mary Elizabeth Mickelthwaite, age 21, spinster, Cross Bank, Batley, daughter of John Micklethwaite, carrier, were married December 24, 1876 in the Independent Chapel, Batley. They both signed their names. Witnesses: John E Hirst and Mary Gomersal. (Civil Record)

    Note: Charles Lewis Land and James Dunford Land were married the same day.

    Occupation: book binder 1876, bookbinder and stationer 1881, draper 1891 and 1901

    1910:

    Notice is hereby, that the Partnership here tofore subsisting between us the undersigned, James Dunford Land and Frank Clayton, carrying on business as Hearthrugs Manufactures, at Town-street, Batley Carr, in Batley, in the county of York, under the style or firm of "LAND AND NEPHEW," has been dissolved by mutual consent as and from the first day of January 1910. All debts due to and owing by the said firm will be received and paid by the said Frank Clayton, who will continue the business under the style of "Frank Clayton" - Dated 22nd day of February, 1910

    JAMES DUNFORD LAND
    FRANK CLAYTON

    The London Gazette February 25, 1910

    Children:

    1. None

    1881 Census in England: James D. Land and family were listed in the 1881 Census at 223 Commercial St. in the township of Batley, Parliamentary District of Dewsbury in the Parish, Church as follows:

    • James D. Land, head, age 26, bookbinder and stationer, born in Batley, Yorkshire.
    • Mary E. Land, wife, age 26, feather dresser, born in Batley, Yorkshire.
    • Martha J. Wilkinson, sister-in-law, age 25, woolen power loom, born in Batley.
    • Ernest M Wilkinson, nephew, age 4, born in Batley

    1891 Census in England: James D. Land and family were listed in the 1891 Census on Cambridge Street, :
    • James Dunford Land, head, age 36, draper, born in Batley, Yorkshire.
    • Mary Elizabeth Land, wife, age 36, born in Batley, Yorkshire.
    • Emily Robinson, boarder, single age 19, milliners shopwoman, born Heckmondwike
    • Clara Muschamp boarder age 16, general labourer domestic, born Baltey

    1901 Census in England: James D Land and family were listed in the 1901 Census in Knaresbrough Outer, St John the Baptist, York, West Riding as follows:

    • James D Land, head, married, age 46, fancy draper employer, born Batley
    • Mary E Land, wife, married, age 46, born in Batley
    • Amy Mickelthwaite, niece, single, age 17

    Note for 1901 Census: I could not read the address which Christine Walker in Jan. 2006, kindly imformed me is "Forest Moore".

    For information on the family of Mary Elizabeth Mickelthwaite go to Mickelthwaite now or at the bottom of the page.

    1911 Census:

    LAND, JAMES DUNFORD HEAD, MARRIED, M 56, FANCY DRAPER, BATLEY YORKS, LAND, MARY ELIZABETH, WIFE, MARRIED, 33, F 56, BATLEY YORKS, STEPHENSON, ANNIE, SERVANT SINGL,E F 24, GENERAL DOMESTIC SERVANT, LEEDS YORKS, CROFT, ELIZABETH ANN, VISITOR, WIDOW, F 57, WEST BURTON, CROFT, ISABEL, VISITOR, SINGLE, F 27, HARROGATE YORKS, Address FOREST MOOR KNARESBORO County Yorkshire West Riding District Knaresborough Subdistrict Knaresborough Enumeration District 8 Parish Knaresborough Outer

    Death of James Dunford Land, 1932:

    Probate: LAND, James Dunford of Birkham Dene Woodlands-drive Harrogate died 26 February 1932 Probate London 26 April to Mary Elizabeth Land widow John Fearnley organist and Ernest Marshall Wilkinson saddler. Effects £4477 16s 2d


1841 Census

John was listed on Canning Street in Hunslet with his parents as follows: Charles Land 43 cloth drawer, Ann age 44, John age 25, cloth drawer, Elizabeth age 18, James age 14, Emma age 7.

Mary Land age 20 her son John Land age 2 months were listed with John Scholefield age 35, woodsman, Eliza Scholefield age 30 and Allen Dyson age 15 at Westside Northgate Huddersfield.


Move from Leeds to Wakefield and then to Batley

As indicated by the places and dates of births of Samuel in Leeds in 1843 and William in Wakefield in 1847, the lands moved from Leeds to Wakefield between those dates.

Why did they make this move at this time? John Land's work was connected to the woolen industry. In fact, woolen manufacturing in Wakefield was waning in the mid 1800s while it was rising in other towns in the district, particuarly in Leeds.

Wakefield, considered as a clothing town, has fallen from its once high position: it has been superseded by other towns. Leeds, Halifax, and Wakefield were once the three great centres: the two former still retain their eminence; while Wakefield has given way, and Bradford and Huddersfield have risen to distinction. In Leland's time we are told that " Wakefield standeth now al by clothying;" and at a later period woollen cloth, stuff goods, and worsted yarn were the main products of the place; but now, although there are still woollen and stuff manufacturers in the town, the number of them bears but a small proportion to those in the other towns we have named. The wool-market, too, is gradually leaving Wakefield for Bradford. Wakefield, on the other hand, has greatly risen as an emporium for the com and malt trade, and also as a cattle and sheep market; so that the prosperity of the town has not declined, it has merely taken a different direction.

Penny magazine of the Society for the diffusion of useful knowledge, Volume 13 By Charles Knight, Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain) 1844

As indicated by the places and dates of births for Charles Lewis Land in Wakefield in 1853 and James Dunford Land in Batley in 1855, John Land and his family moved to Batley between those dates.


1851 Census Wakefield

John Land and family were listed at Clayton Hill, Alverhorpe cum Thornes (Wakefield) in the 1851 see Lands in the Censuses


Directory Listings for John Land

John Land was not listed in Batley in the 1857 or 1863 Directory of Leeds. Batley was not included in the 1872 Directory of Leeds.


Death of Mary Dyson Land

Church Record: Mary Land of Havercroft, age 38, was buried in Batley parish March 21, 1857 (LDS film #1542210).

Civil Record: Mary Land, wife of John Land, cloth drawer, died March 19, 1857, of consumption (certified), the death was reported by John Land, present at the death, King Street, Batley.


Marriage of John Land and Lydia Law★, November 7, 1857, Birstall

Not quite eight months after Mary's death John Land married Lydia Law. John was about 16 years older than Lydia and had six children still living from his first marriage: John age 16, Samuel, age 15, William, age 9, Elizabeth Ann, age 8, Charles Lewis, age 4, and James Dunford, age 2. Lydia was 22 years old. Only 6 years older than John Land, Junior. One can easily see the advantage to John of this marriage. What was the advantage to Lydia?

Civil record: John Land, age 38, widower, clothdrapper, of Gomersal, son of Charles Land, clothdrawer, and Lydia Law, age 22, spinster, of Gomersal, daughter of William Law, weaver. The witnesses were Nathaniel William Thorburn and Joseph Crowther. Note: The copy of the civil records does not include the original signatures of John and Lydia but indicates that they both signed their own names.

The Birstall parish record: John Land, age 38, widower, cloth ____, Gomersal, son of Charles Land, cloth_____, and Lydia Law, age 22, spinster, Gomeral, daughter of William Law, weaver, married in the parish church. Witnesses the same as listed in the civil registration.

The signatures of John Land and Lydia Law from the parish register
Notes:
  • Frequently marriages seem to have occurred in a parish other than the one in which the bride and groom appear to have been living.
    • The records for the births of the children of John Land indicate that he lived in Batley Parish from at least 1855.
    • The records for Lydia Law and her father, indicated that they lived in Batley Parish from at least 1840.
    • The records indicate that all of the children of John Land and Lydia Law Land were born in Batley Parish.
    • There were no baptismal records for any of the children of John and Lydia in Gomersal in Bristall Parish.
    • There were no other contemporary records for any family closely connected to either Lydia Law or John Land in the Gomersal records.

    Why were they married in Gomersall in Birstall parish? The only connection that I can see at this point is that Lydia's grandfather, Benjamin Law, was born in Gomersal.

  • John was listed on the civil record as a "cloth drapper". This is the only record where he was listed as such. According to A Dictionary of Old Trades, Titles and Occupations, by Colin Water, a "draper" was
    "Originally anyone who sold something by quantity particularly wool but also other commodities."


Children of John Land and Lydia Law

Lydia Law and John Land had:

  1. Law Land★ (1858-1926) and Elizabeth Sykes★

    Birth

    Civil Record: Law, son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia, formerly Law, was born in Batley on December, 29, 1858. The birth was registered on January 14, 1859 by John Land, father, of Alma Terrace, Batley.

    Note: Law was given his mother's maiden name as his first name. John and Lydia could not name him, William, after Lydia's father because John already had a son, William, from his first marriage. It was relatively common in England at the time to give a son his mother's maiden name as a first name.

    Church Record: I could not find the baptismal record of Law Land.

    Marriage: Law Land married Elizabeth Sykes on April 25, 1880, in Batley in 1880. The immigrated to Canada circa 1882 and subsequently immigrated to the United States. For more information on Law and Elizabeth, their marriage and family see below or go to Law Land now.

  2. Albert Land (1861-1886)

    Birth:

    Civil Record: Albert Land, son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia Land, formerly Law, was born March 1, 1861, birth reported by his father, John Land, Alma Terrace, Batley (Civil Record).

    Church Record: I could not find a baptismal record as of July 2011.

    Further Record: Albert immigrated to Philadelphia with Lydia in 1883. I did not find any other records for him in Philadelphia.

    Death: Albert died in January 1886 in Philadelphia.

  3. Percy Land (1862-1885)

    Birth:

    Civil Record: Percy Land, the son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia, formerly Law, was born on November 2, 1862, birth reported by Lydia Land, Mother, Wheat Croft, Batley.

    Church Record: I did not find a baptismal record for Percy as of July 2011.

    Further Records: Percy immigrated to Philadelphia with Lydia in 1883. I did not find any other records for him in Philadelphia.

    Death: Percy died in 1885 in Philadelphia.

  4. Arthur (1864-

    Civil Record: Arthur Land, son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia Land formerly Law, was born August 31, 1864, Wheats Croft Batley. Birth reported September 7, 1864 by Lydia Land, mother (Civil Record).

    Church Record: I did not find a baptismal record for Arthur as of July 2011.

    Further Records: Arthur immigrated to Philadelphia with Lydia in 1883. I did not find any other records for him in Philadelphia.

  5. Harry Land (1867-) and Tevillian Reinart

    Birth:

    Civil Record: Harry Land, son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia Land, formerly Law, was born January 2, 1867, Wood Well, Batley. The birth was reported by Lydia Land, mother.

    Church Record: I did not find the baptismal record for Harry Land as of July 2011.

    Further Records: Harry immigrated to Philadelphia with his mother in 1883 and married in Philadelphia in 1896. See Lydia and Her Children in Philadelphia

  6. Adelaide Land (1868-1950) and Peter Daniels

    Birth:

    Civil Record: Adelaide Land, the daughter of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia Land, formerly Law, was born May 25, 1868, Church Lane, Batley. The birth was reported by Lydia Land, mother.

    Church Record: I did not find the baptismal record for Adelaide Land as of July 2011.

    Further Records:

    Adelaide immigrated to Philadelphia with her mother in 1883. She married in Philadelphia in 1900. See Lydia and Her Children in Philadelphia

  7. Polly Land (1871-1951 ) and John Wooler

    Civil Record: Polly Land, daughter of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia Land, formerly, Law, was born September 21, 1871, Wood Well, Batley. The birth was reported by Lydia Land, mother.

    Church Record: I did not find the baptismal record for Polly Land.

    Further Records: Polly immigrated to Philadelphia with her mother in 1883 and married in Philadelphia in 1891. See Lydia and Her Children in Philadelphia

  8. Walter Land (1873) and Bertha ________

    Civil Record: Walter, the son of John Land, cloth drawer, and Lydia Land, formerly, Law, was born on September 3, 1873, Wood Well, Batley.

    Church Record: I did not find the baptismal record for Walter Land.

    Further Records: Walter immigrated to Philadelphia with his mother in 1883. See Lydia and Her Children in Philadelphia


1861 Census Batley

John Land and family were listed at Wheats Croft Batley in the 1861 see Lands in the Censuses


Changes in the Naming Pattern for the Land Family

With the exception of Law who was named for Lydia's maiden name, none of the children of John Land and Lydia Law were given names that appeared in the records up to that time.

This represents a big break in the naming pattern in the Land family, who tended to name their children after their ancesters. It should be noted that family names were used with the children of the first marriage. It is only with the second set of children that new names enter the name pool. It is clear that new names were introduced into the family around the time of many other social changes. Some of these new names were used by several other branches and/or generations:

  • Percy was used by Lydia and John in England in 1863, by Law in Canada in 1885, and by Adelaide in Philadelphia in 1903.
  • Albert was used by Lydia and John in England in 1861 and by Adelaide in Philadelphia in 1897.
  • Adelaide was used by Lydia and John in England in 1869 and by Law in Canada in 1883. (Law's first daughter was called Edith Adelaide, but she went by the name Adelaide.)
  • Walter was used by Lydia and John in England in 1874 and by Samuel in Philadelphia in 1878. Samuel did keep with tradition in naming his first son after his father, John, and his son, Charles, was given a name that had been used in the Land family for several generations.
  • Law was used by John and Lydia in England in 1848 and by Harry Land in Philadelphia in 1901

Frederick, Edna and Herbert were introduced in the next generation:

  • Freddie, Frederick and it's variations were used by William in England in 1874, Samuel in Philadelphia in 1875, and Law in New Jersey in 1890.
  • Herbert was used by Samuel in Philadelphia in 1871 and by Law in New Jersey in 1899. (Law's son who was later called Norman, was listed on the 1900 census as Herbert; there is no name on his birth certificated it simply lists a male child. Adelaide also named a son Norman in 1901.)


1871 Census Batley

John Land and family were listed at Wood Wele Batley in the 1871 see Lands in the Censuses


Death of John Land

John Land, age 59, cloth drawer, died on October 26, 1877 at Nussey Mill Yard, Batley, cause of death "probably apoplexy", reported by Lydia Land widow of the deceased, present at the death, Nussey Mill Yard, Batley (Civil Record)

LDS microfilm 1482951 contains the death records for Batley parish cemetery from 1867 to 1967. John Land's burial was not listed.

According to Webster apoplexy is,

"A sudden and total loss of movement and consciousness, commonly called 'a stroke', due to rupture or clotting of one of the blood vessels in the brain"


Repercussions of the death John Land

When John died in 1877 the children of his first marriage were all adults. The eight children from the second marriage ranged in age from 19 to 4 years old. How did Lydia manage?

In the 1881 census Lydia was listed without an occupation. Albert and Percy, 20 and 18, were piecer in a woolen mill. Arthur, 16, was a cloth finisher and Harry, 14 was a mechanic spinning machine. There appears to have been four children supporting the family.

When John died in 1877 there were four children above the age of 13: Law born 1858, Albert born 1861, Percy born 1862, and Arthur born 1864.


1881 Census Batley

Lydia Land and family were listed at Nussey Mill Yard, Batley in the 1881 see Lands in the Censuses


Addresses for The Family of John Land in Leeds, Wakefield, and Batley

The records indicate that John Land lived in the following places:

  • Born in Leeds in 1818
  • Hobeck (a section of the city of Leeds) at the time of his marriage to Mary Dyson in 1840.
  • 36 West Street, City of Leeds at the birth of John in 1841.
  • 56 Back Nile Street, City of Leeds, in the 1842 Leeds Directory (home?). 63 Back Nile Street (work?). Back Nile Street is in the Leland section of Leeds. It was demolished to make room for wider streets in the early 1900s.
  • Leeds at the birth of Samuel in 1843.
  • Back Lane, Wakefield at the birth of William in 1847. Back Lane still exists - it runs more or less parallel to Westgate between Ings Rd and Drury Lane.
  • Westgate Common, Alverthorpe with Thornes (a "suburb" of Wakefield) at the birth of Elizabeth Ann in 1849.
  • 106 Clayton Hill, Wakefield in the 1851 census. Clayton Hill is not on a current map of Wakefield. However, the 1890 Ordnance Survey Map shows Clayton Hill running parallel to Westgate End west of Laweield Lane. About the location of Milton Street.

    "Parliamentary Division of West Riding, Yorkshire, Borough of Wakefield, Registrar's District of Alverthorps

    "All that portion of the hamlet of Thornes lying on the south east side of the Wakefield and Hudderfield Turnpike Road and bounded thereby on the north west commencing at a dwelling house in the occupation of Mils Wornalds near to the north lodge of Thornes House Park on Westgate Common to the dwelling house on Westgate Bridge occupied by John Wood from thence in an easterly direction by the boundary of the township to the Wakefield and Danby Dale Road for thence in a southerly direction to the junction with Law Field Lane thence along the said lane in a westerly direction to and skirting the northend of Thornes House Park to Mils Wornalds house aforesaid.

    This forms part of the Ecclesiastical District of Thornes and also forms part of the corporate and parliamentary borough (sic) of Wakefield."

  • Westgate Common, Alverthorp with Thornes at the birth of Charles Lewis in 1852.
  • Carlinghow, Batley at the birth of James Dunford in March 1855.
  • King Street, Batley at the death of Mary Land (John's first wife) in 1857. King Street is not on a current map of Batley.
  • Alma Terrace, John Land at he birth of his of son, Law Land in 1858
  • 121 Wheats Croft, Batley in the 1861 census and the August 1864 birth of Arthur.
  • Wood Well, Batley at the birth of Harry in January 1867. Wood Well is not on a current map of Batley. However, it was on the 1905 Ordnance Survey Map of the town.
  • Church Lane, Batley at the birth of Adelaide in May 1868. Church Lane is not on a current map of Batley.
  • Wood Well, Batley at the birth of Polly in 1871. The 1871 census listed them at 43 Wood Well, Batley.
    "That part of the township of Batley commencing at the corner house at the bottom of Healey Road up to the bottom of Healy taking Thos. Taylor's and I. Taylor's houses down the Foot Road to Brod Well and all the houses at Wood Wele and the houses at the bottom of Healy Rd. The above Enumeration District is in the West Ward of the municipal borough of Batley in the Parliamentary District of Dewsbury and in the Ecclesiastical District of the Parish Church of Batley."
  • Nussey Mill Yard at the death of John in 1877.
  • Lydia Land and her children were listed at 11 Nussey Mill Yard in the township of Batley, Parliamentary District of Dewsbury, St. John' s Church, Carlinghow Parish. Nussey Mill Yard is not on a current map of Batley. Lydia and her children were in ED19 "Part of the Township of Batley" described as follows:
    "Commencing at the foot of the road leading out of Blakeridge Lane to Nussey's mill taking all the houses in that mill yard and all the houses on the north side of the road leading from the top of Blakeridge Lane to Caringhow, taking all the houses in Jubb's mill yard and all the houses in Victoria Street, Brick Street and all the houses on both sides of the Dewsbury and Gomersall Turnpike road as far as the house at the bottom of Nussey Mill yard there and the houses near to and including the Wiltons Arms Bridge Hotel and all the houses there on both sides of Carlinghow Hill and Upper Batley Lane as far as the lane leading from Upper Batley to Brownhill then coming back to Beck Lane Carlinghow (both sides) taking the north side of Carlinghow to the Carlinghow Old Hall Farm including that farm house then taking the road from there to the Dewsbury and Gomersal Turnpike road and all the houses on both sides of that road including the Cooperative House and all the houses in Dock Ivy Field down to the bottom of Beck Lane.

    House 279

    Families 290

John Land was not listed in the Leeds directory in the village of Batley in the 1857 or 1863 Directory of Leeds. Batley was not included in the 1872 Directory of Leeds.


The Name Land

For information of the possible meaning and origins of the name Land go to The Name Land


The Lands in England

The earliest known Land ancestor in this line was John Land born no later than 1746, place unknown. The first record connected to him was found in Wakefield in 1767. For an overview of the genealogy go to Land Ancestors


Lydia Law Land and Her Children in Philadelphia

Lydia Law Land and seven of her children immigrated to the Philadelphia in 1883. For more information on Lydia and her children in Philadelphia, click on the photo of the Philadelphia Art Museum.


Law Land and Elizabeth Sykes

Law Land, the son of John Land and Lydia Law, married Elizabeth Sykes in Batley, Yorkshire in 1880. They subsequently lived in Toronto, Canada, Detroit Michigan, Hoboken, New Jersey, Jersey City, New Jersey and Smithtown, Long Island. For more information on the family of Law and Elizabeth, and their life in America, click on their photo.


Elizabeth Sykes

Elizabeth Sykes was the daughter of George Stell Sykes. For more information on the Sykes go to George Stell Sykes


Charles Lewis Land, the father of John Land

For information on Charles Lewis Land, click on the photo of the Aire River, Holbeck


The Lands in the English Censuses

For listings of the Lands in the censuses, click on the picture of the houses in Batley.


The Lands in Leeds

To view pictures and maps of the areas in Leeds in which the Lands lived, click on the picture of Leeds from Holbeck


Photographs of Leeds

To view photos of Leeds, click on the photos of St Peter's Church in Leeds.


Wakefield, Pictures

John Land, the father of Law Land, lived in Wakefield from 1849 to 1853. His ancestors, Charles and John Land, lived in Wakefield from 1767 to 1789. To view pictures of Wakefield, click on the photo of All Saints Church in Wakefield.


Wakefield, Information

For information on the town of Wakefield, click on the photo of the old building in Westgate, Wakefield.


Leeds

For information on Leeds, click on the photo of St Peter's, Leeds.


The Laws

For information on Lydia Law, and her ancestors click on the photo of Wellington Street, Batley.


MAPS of Leeds, Wakefield, and Batley, PHOTOS of Leeds, Wakefield and Batley, HISTORY, ORIGINAL DOCUMENT, AND OTHER INFORMATION

Mary Elizabeth Mickelthwaite was the wife of James Dunford Land (1855). For more information on the Mickeltwaites go to Mickelthwaite

If you have any suggestions, corrections, information, copies of documents, or photos that you would like to share with this page, please contact me at maggie@maggieblanck.com

Land Related Families and Information Connecting Page
Connection to all Land pages
Other Lands in Batley
Other Lands in Birstall
Other Lands in Leeds
Other Lands in both Batley and Philadelphia
Weaving and Woolcombing

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Thanks,

Maggie


©Maggie Land Blanck - Page created 2004 - Latest update, October 2011