Pirkinik, Perkinik, Perkenik, Perknig, Perknik, Prknik

HOME - The Azarians - - Sivas - Arevian/Hagopian

Pirkinik, Perkinik, Perkenik, Perknig, Perknik, Prknik, etc., An Armenian Catholic Village Near Sivas, In Central Anatolia, Turkey

My husband's grandmother, Lucy Arevian/Hagopian Azarian, and her siblings, Batiste, Hovsep, Nazareth, and Avidis Arevian/Hogopian were born in the village of Pirkinik, state of Sivas, Turkey. Lucy was born there circa 1875. The family moved to Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey before 1895. In the early 1920s Lucy moved with her husband and children to New Jersey, United States of America.

One of the major problems of transliterating a name into another alphabet and languages is the varieties of spelling that can ensue. The village in question is now called Çayboyu (Pirkinik). I have found a variety of spellings including: Perknig, Perknik, Pirkinik, Pirkinek, Pirkenik, Perkenek, Perkenik, Perkinik, Prknik, Prknig, Brgnik, Berkinik. On postcards written by the Tchiboukkearians (the family name of the Armenian poet, Daniel Varoujan) and included in The Tchiboukkearians of Perknig, the spelling was "Perknig". The spelling given to me by members of the Azarian/Hagopian family when I first started the research around 2000 was Prkng.

From the early 1700s until 1915 Pirkinik was an Armenian Catholic village. Most Armenians were Armenian Apostolic (sometimes referred to as the Georgian Church). However the village of Perkinik prided itself in being 100% Roman Catholic. This means that they accepted the full authority of the Pope in Rome. The Armenian Catholic Church was officially recognized by Pope Benedict XIV in 1742.

However, I do not know how long the village was Roman Catholic. In 1821 Voyages en Orient refers to the village as "Catholic". Voyages en Orient of 1929 stated that Catholics lived in the Village of Perkinik, a "league" away and there was a monastery that serves as a residences for monks sent by the Patriarch of Lebanon.

The level of Catholicism in Perkinik is a unique situation in Anatolia.

It has been written that the people were involved with agriculture and in general were pretty miserable. However, the village did have a stone church and a stone bath house and many of the inhabitants left to lead successful lives in Constantinople. This included the Azarian family who became quite wealthy merchants and the poet Daniel Varoujan and others. In July 2018 Therese Schoen the daughter of Garabad Eminian who was born in the village wrote:

"...the Eminians were the second wealthiest family in the village. I have heard that the village was well off for the times. I think the bath house might have been a luxury. I didn't get the impression from my relatives that everyone was miserable. Yes, they had to deal with the Turks and also the animosity of surrounding Armenians who belonged to the national church."

"Garabed did say that it was a farming village of a few hundred Armenian Catholic families and there is a river nearby. I later learned that there was a khatchkar (cross stone typical of Armenian artifacts) supposedly inscribed with a notification that the village was founded ca. 1226 by a contingent of the Bagradid dynasty. Joe Topalian would be a better source than me for that but I believe it was he who told me the story."

Storia universale della Chiesa cattolica dal principio del ..., Volumes 27-28 By René François Rohrbacher 1855 indicates that the village was converted in the early 1700s. In 1891 Perkinik was said to have a population of eighteen hundred "souls" (Histoire du Patriarcat Armenien Catholique). However, La Turquie d'Asie, geographie administrative of 1891 stated that there were 1,300 inhabitants in Pirkinik.

It is also possible that my husband's grandfather, Abram Azarian, was born in Pirknik. There were Azarians in Perkinik. Abram Azarian claimed to have been born in Sivas. It may have been the town of Sivas or another local village in the region of Sivas. Whereas Lucy specifically listed her birthplace as "Pirkenik" at her immigration into the US, Abram listed his birthplace only as Sivas.

The family of Hovhannes Azarian and his wife Anna Kovhovmjian were from Pirkinik. Their sons became wealthy merchants in Constantinople and Boston. See Azarians

In May 2008 my husband, Tom, and I visited Turkey for a week. We spent two days in the Sivas area. One morning our guides and translator, Kagan, Yervant and Metin, drove us to the village of Pirkinik.

Robert Hewson in Armenia, A Historical Atlas and others say that Pirkinik is an hour outside of Sivas. That may have been true in the days before automobiles when one had to travel by foot, donkey or ox cart. By car, the trip from the center of Sivas to Pirkinik took less than ten minutes.

We drove the length of the village on its south side. On the north side of the street were older buildings and on the south were several modern high rise apartments and a modern school. At the end of the village we got out and explored a bit on foot.

We did not venture too far from the main road. Many of the buildings were in very poor shape — patched and jerry rigged with wood, cinder blocks and corrugated tin — and leaning at all sorts of precarious angles. We could see three types of basic construction in the older buildings: cut stone, uncut stone, and timber framing (with rubble filling & stucco finish). Most of the buildings originally probably had mud or tile roofs — although many now had corrugated tin roofs. Many of the buildings had balconies (or the remains of balconies). We could not see any modern buildings in the cluster of older buildings. The only newer buildings were on the periphery of the village.

The men of the village where known to have been muleteers who traveled all over Asia Minor. They have also been referred to as farmers. The women of the village may have made rugs. John Minassian in Many Hills Yet To Climb states that Oriental carpets were woven by young Armenian girls in the hundreds of Armenian villages that surounded Sivas.

Pirkinik, May 2008

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

This is the largest and most imposing building we saw — being one of two buildings of cut stone. Its shape and the domed roofs suggests that it was once the public bath.* The ground level must have been lower at one time as the doorways are impossibly low for an adult to enter. The interior appears to be completely filled with rubble and dirt. We could not find any inscription. The light green object in front of the building is a fountain.

* See the bath in Sivas at Sivas

See also History of Pirkinik Chapter 4

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

Another view of the same building.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

This building was one of the two buildings of cut stone that we saw (the other being the bath). It is clearly an old Armenian building as evidenced by the inscription in Armenian on the key stone. See image below.

The height of the arch suggests that the building was once much taller. See also History of Pirkinik Chapter 4

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

Another view of the same building.

I believe that this is just a fragment of the original building. The stone work around the arch ends rather abruptly at the top. It is highly likely that the original building was much taller.

Since most of the buildings in the village were of uncut stone or timber framing it is highly likely that this was a building of some importance. With the wide arched doorway it is tempting to think it was part of one of the two known churches. This type of doorway was common on Armenian churches.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

The inscription on the key stone is in Armenian. We could not make out what is written, except the year — 1909 — which is barley visible on the lower right.

See also History of Pirkinik Chapter 4

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

This is typical of the state of the village today. The uncut stone walls are most likely old; as are the red tile roofs. The cinder blocks and corrugated tin can be presumed to post date 1915. The house on the extreme right is whitewashed. It is likely that at least some of the Armenian houses in Pirkinik were stone covered with stucco that was whitewashed or painted in some way.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

This building looks to be of timber framing. Notice the remnant of a balcony.

The gate is a ghost of the typical entryway into pre 1915 properties. See the houses in Sivas at Sivas

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

The house on the left shows the uncut stone construction and the one on the right shows a balcony.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

Our guides told us that this old mill wheel was turned by oxen.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

This image gives some idea of the terrain around Pirkinik. The house in the distance is of modern construction.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

Based on window size, the balcony and the type of construction, I believe that this building dates from the days when Pirkinik was an Armenian village. The cemetery in the background on the left is Moslem. This building is one of the first of the old buildings as one approaches Pirkinik from Sivas.

Sivas 1877

SIVAS 1877 edited by Arsen Yarmen contains two images of Pirkinik.

Pirkinik Ermeni Katolik Surp Sarkis Kilisesi. Natanyan kitabinda bu kilisenin adini zikretmemistir. Arsen Yarman arsivi.

[St Sarkis Armenian Catholic church. Natanyan named this church in his book (or something along those lines). Arsen Yarmen archives.]

Pirkinik köyü ahalisi. Arsen Yarman archives

[Pirkinik villagers. Arsen Yarman archives]

Families From Pirkinik

The following list of families from Perkinik is complied from a variety of sources.

  1. The Arevian/Hagopian Family

    The name is listed in the Constantinople church records as both Hagopian and Arevian. Some of the family left Perkinik and went to Constantinople in the 1880s. The family dispersed even further after 1920 going to the US, Egypt and France. Lucy Arevian/Hagopian listed her birth places as Pirkinik. See Arevian/Hagopian now or at the bottom of the page. See also Hagop Arevian

  2. The Azarian Family

    The Azarians, a family of wealthy merchants and bankers, who later lived in Constantinople.

    This family included Stephanos Peteros Azarian the Patriarch of the Armenian Catholic Church from 1881-1899. He was born in 1826 in Constantinople but the family originally came from Pirkinik. See Other Azarians now or at the bottom of the page.

  3. The Varoujean (Tchibourkkearian) Family

    Tchibourkkearian — AKA Varoujean - The Armenian poet, Taniel Varoujan (Varoujean): whose family name was Tchibourkkearian was born in Pirkinik.

    Tchiboukkearian, Daniel de Pirkinik (Armenie) admis avec distinction" Pamphlets on Biology: Kofoid collection, Volume 1048, Science, 1907 Universite De Gand, Annee Academique 1907-1908, FACULTE DE DROIT, [Faculity of Law] Grade de licencie en science commercials Premiere Epreuve

    [Tchiboukkearian, Daniel of Pirkinik (Armenia) admitted with distinction], University of Ghent, Belgium, 1907

    Veronica Tchiboukkerian (Varoujean), the daughter of the poet, Taniel Varoujan, was born in Perkenik in 1910. She published a collection of family postcards called The Tchiboukkearians of Perknig.
    "Daniel Varoujian was born in a ancient stone house on the banks of a willow-shaded stream some 125 years ago, in Perknig, in the province of Sebastia. Mekhitarist Fathers of the famous teaching order ran the village school."
    The postcards do not include any images of Perkinik

    The name was also spelt Chebookkerian in the History of the Village of Perkenik by Father Ephrem Boghossian written in the 1950 or 60s. It is also spelt Chpugkyarian on the Internet.

    In March 2015 Alen Ozumit wrote and shared some information about Daniel Varoujan that was published in his church's bulletin. The church is a Armenian Catholic congregation - Notre-Dame-de-Nareg de Montreal in Quebec. The article is in French and I have made a loose translation since my French is quite limited.

    Daniel Varoujan was born 1884 in Perknic, Sebaste where he spent his childhood dreaming in the sad shade of willows and throwing stones at ducks along the river. He was still a child when his father migrated to Istanbul. His mother during the long winter evenings sat by the fireside and told him wonderful stories as the wind in the chimney sometimes screamed and sometimes cried like a offering from a ghost. In 1896 Daniel himself left Pirkinik for Istanbul where he attended the Mechitharist 's Fathers school. He was a brilliant student and the school sent him to Venice to further his studies. He was still there in 1902. In 1905 he went to Belgium to study at the University of Ghent. He was passionate about his studies but was homesick for his country and his old mother. In 1909 he returned to Perkinik where he wrote poetry and taught. In 1912 he was appointed perfect of studies at the college of Saint Gregory the Illuminator. On April 24, 1915 he was arrested together with other Armenian intellectuals. He was tied to a tree and dismembered. His remains left to the birds.
    The information for this article was compiled in 2015 by Georges Vigny.

    In June 2017 Linda Minier wrote that her father had studied at boarding school in Corfu, Greece where many of the students were from Sepastia.

    "Daniel Varoujean had two sons Haig and Armen. Haig passed away in Fresno and Armen and his wife Helen passed away in Honolulu, Hawaii. Varoujean's wife is buried in the Armenian cemetery in Fresno, Ca. She had remarried and lived in Casablanca for years moving to Fresno when she was older. The family had lived in upstate New York before moving to Fresno I believe. Haig's children live in Oregon and Armen's son and daughter live in Hawaii. There is a statue of him the University in Brussels, Belgium where Varoujean went to college. My parents were friends of Armen and his wife."

    1923: Arexio Apikian Arrival 27 Nov 1923 Birth Location: Turkey Birth Location Other: sivas Age: 30 Gender: Female Ethnicity/ Nationality: Turkish Port of Departure: Cherbourg Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Olympic, with Girair, age 34, engineer, both from geneva Switzerland, to New York

    1926: Araxie Apikian Arrival 13 Oct 1926 Birth Location: Turkey sivas Age: 33 Gender: Female Ethnicity/ Nationality: American Port of Departure: Cherbourg, France Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Homeric

    1929 Petition for Naturalization - Araxie M. Varoujean Apikian 449 Audubon ave, dressmaker and housewife, born 22, March 1893 sivas Turkey, emiggrated from Cherbourg 21 No 1923 to NY on the Olympic, husband Girair, born 14, Mar 1889 Constantinople, four children with her first husband who died May 1915 in Turkey: Veronica born June 6, 1912, Armeene born september 9, 1913. Kribor born September 1913, Haygag born August 12, 1915

    1940: New York New York, Araxie Apikian 46, dress designer, dress sample company, Veroni Saprasian 29, daughter, seamstress, Joseph Saprasian 32, son in law, born Russia, lived Paris in 1935, designer, wholesale textiles, Armen Varoujean 27, "step son", mechanic, garage, Haig Varoujean 24, "step son", photo engraver, printing

    1954: Araxie Apikian Varoujean, 29 May 1954 age 60, born Turkey sebastia Gender: Female Port of Departure: Casablanca, Morocco Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Estrid Torm, 1 case, 1 suitcase, 2 trunks

    1955: Araxie V. Apikian Departure Date: 4 Apr 1955 Departure Place: New York, New York, USA Airline: TRANS WORLD AIRLINES INC. Flight Number: 918/04 to Paris

    1967: The Fresno Bee - April 27, Araxi Varujean Apikian, age 72 of 545 Lafayette ave Fresno died at a local rest home. A native of Sivas, Armenia, she had been in Fresno for about three years. She was survived by her husband, Girair, a daughter Veronica Safrasain of New York, two sons, Armen and Haig both ot Fresno and five grandchildren. Donation were requested for the Holy Trinity Armenian Church in Fresno and the Pan-Sebastia Rehabilitation Union.

    Araxie Apikian SSN: 064-01-7098 Last Residence: 93728 Fresno, Fresno, California, USA BORN: 22 Mar 1893 Died: Apr 1967

    Veronique, Haig and Armen Varoujean

    1929: 20 August, Majestic to New York from Cherbourg, Varoujean Veronique, age 18 student, Armen student age 17, Haigag student age 14, Birth Location: Turkey Stamboul, Ethnicity Armenian, last permanent address 6 Bergalione, Geneva Switzerland to their mother in 24 E 21st street, NYC, New York City

    1930: Manhattan Audubon ave, Jerair Apikian 41, merchant exports, general merchandise, Arax Apikian 37, wife, immigrated 1924, Veronic Varoujean 18, step daughter, Armen Varoujean 16, step son, Haig Varoujean 14, step son, all Armenian born Turkey, children all immigrated 1929,

    1. Veronique born Turkey circa 1911 -married Safrasian

      2009: Last Residence: 10541 Mahopac, Putnam, New York BORN: 7 Jun 1911 Died: 26 Feb 2009

      Taniel Varoujan's Daughter, Veronica Safrasian, on March 16, 2009 Veronica Safrasian (nee Varoujean Tchiboukerian), the daughter of Taniel Varoujan, a well known writer and poet, passed away on February 25 in Purdys, N.Y. at the age of 98.

      Veronica was born on June 6, 1910 in Perkenik, a village of Sepastia. After studying in Geneva, Switzerland, she came to the United States in the 1930's. She worked as a librarian and for the Rizzoli and Doubleday bookstores in New York, as well as for the New York Library until she retired in 1982.

      She was very proud of her Armenian heritage and always participated in April 24th genocide demonstrations in New York City.

      She is survived by a daughter, granddaughter, great grandson, nieces, nephews, and cousins.

    2. Haig born Turkey circa 1913/15

      1941: Haig Varoujean, Birth Year: 1915, Race: White, citizen (White), Nativity State or Country: Turkey, State of Residence: New York, County or City: New York, Enlistment Date: 25 Apr 1941, Enlistment State: New York, Enlistment City: New York City, Branch: Branch Immaterial - Warrant Officers, USA, Branch Code: Branch Immaterial - Warrant Officers, USA, Grade: Private, Grade Code: Private, Component: Selectees (Enlisted Men), Source: Civil Life, Education: 2 years of high school, Civil Occupation: Photoengravers, Marital Status: Single, without dependents, Height: 67, Weight: 153

      1941: Haig Varoujean, Gender: Male, Race: White, Age: 27, Birth Date: abt 1914, Marriage Date: 22 Dec 1941, Marriage Place: Richmond, Virginia, USA, Registration Place: Richmond, Virginia, USA, Father: Daniel Varoujean, Mother: Araxie, Spouse: Alice Karaian, Spouse Gender: Female, Spouse Race: White, Spouse Age: 25, Spouse Father: Enoch Karaian, Spouse Mother: Evpime Vahoni

      Armen Varoujean was the best man.

      1955: Haig Varoujean, Gender: Male, Residence Year: 1955, Street address: 2145 Normal av, Residence Place: Fresno, California, USA, Occupation: Engraver, Spouse: Alice K Varoujean, Publication Title: Fresno, California, City Directory, 1955

      1968: Varten E Varoujean the son of Haig Varoujean of 1015 W. Celeste Ave Fresno was assigned to the Signal Battalion near Phu Lan, Vietnam

      1970: Vartan E Varoujean married Jeanne Rae Watson in Fresno in July 1970. They divorced in 1974.

      2002: Haig Varoujean, SSN: 057145967, Gender: Male, Race: White, Birth Date: 12 Aug 1915, Birth Place: Turkey, Death Date: 12 Oct 2002, Father: Daniel Varoujean, Mother: Aratie C Varoujean, Notes: Jul 1938: Name listed as HAIG VAROUJEAN

      2002: Haig Varoujean Birth Date: 1913 Death Date: 2002 Cemetery: Belmont Memorial Park Burial or Cremation Place: Fresno, Fresno County, California, United States of America

    3. Armen born Turkey circa 1916

      1964: Ann Varoujean the daughter of Armen Varoujean was married in Fresno in February 1964 to Charles R Adanalian. Her brother "Gerry" was a "candle lighter'. Ann and Chalres divorced in 1970.

      1983: Gerald A Varoujean Residence Year: 1983 Residence Place: Honolulu, Hawaii Occupation: Broadcasting Eng Publication Title: Polk's Directory of City and County of Honolulu, 1983

    There is a fair amount on the Internet about Taniel (Daniel) Varoujan.

  4. The Balian/Balgian/Baljian Family - Fitchburg, Massachusetts???

    Balian Family

    per Therese Topalian, July 2008

  5. 1913: Balian, Sarkis, 21, M, 1913-09-08 (New York), Martha Washington, Sivas (Pirkinik), Sivas, Turkey to 39 West St. / Milford, MA, USA (Note: dob c 1892)(Armenian Immigration Project Abstracts of Primary Source Material for the Study of Armenian Immigration to North America through 1930)

    1927: listed Nishan Balgian in local directory for Worchester

    1930: Worchester, Mass Hawley street, Nishan "Balgaian" 50, Shuttle boy Filer Loom Wks., imm 1916, Catinig Balgaian 40, imm 1916, Vahe Balgaian 10 Navatt Balgaian 8, girls born Rhode Island

    1940: Chandler street, Worchester, Mass., Nishan Balgian 58, fireman, Satinig Balgian 50 Vahe Balgian 20, born Rhode Island, Rose Balgian 18, born Rhode Island Hred Shanazarian 45, lodger

    1942 Nishan Balgian 210 Chandler st Worcester, Mass. born Mar 28, 1880 Sivas Turkey wife, Satinig

    1953: from New York to Bremerhaven, N. Rose Baljian Birth Place: Rhode Island Departure Date: 7 Aug 1953 Departure Place: New York, New York, USA, address 210 Chandler st Worchester, Mass. Ship: USNS GEN MAURICE ROSE (T AP 126), intending to stay abroad 2 years

    1962: Age 82, Nishan, Balgian, Birth Date 28 Mar 1880, State Massachusetts, Event Date Aug 1962

    1974: Satenig Karaghuesian Baljian, Death Date: 1974, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, Volume Number: 111, Page Number: 297, Index Volume Number: 124/125, Reference Number: F63.M363 v.124/12

    1999: Mass. Death cert., Vahe V Baljian Certificate: 020111 Death Place: Auburn Death Date: 13 Feb 1999 Birth Place: Rhode Island Birth Date: 1 Nov 1919

    2004: Nvart Rose Baljian [N Rose Gara] [Rose Metz] SSN: 016141709 Gender: Female Race: White Birth Date: 18 Jul 1921 Birth Place: Providence, Rhode Island Death Date: 23 Dec 2004 Father: Nishan Baljian Mother: Sara S Karaghuesian Type of Claim: Original SSN.

    Nishan Baljian Gender: Male Spouse: Sara S Karaghuesian Child: Nvart Rose Baljian

  6. Borchonion/Borchanian, Sahg

    1918: Sahg Borchonion 185 River Fitchburg, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, Alien, Prgng, Armenian, Turkey, laborer, single, born 1890, no month or date, Physical Build: Medium Height: Medium Hair Color: Black Eye Color: Dark Brown

    1918: Fitchburg Daily Sentinel, Sahg Borchonion was ordered to Fort Dix for induction into the armed services.

    1920: Mike Tohamozin 34, Krikor Gelbian 34, Hanparzi Gelbian 45, Harry Domigan 25, Hagob Papogian 35, Bogas Derm?Ingan 31, Sahag Borchanian 29, single, boarder, laborer, cotton mill, imm 1909 Masgos Derderian 25

    1921: 8 Feb passport application, Sahag Borchanian, age 32 born 4 Jan 1890, Sivas Turkey, living Fitchburg Mass, father Abraham Borchanian, living in Constantinople, sailed from Marseilles, France December 20, 1911 lived in Fitchburg from 1911 to 1920, occupation, helper, to go to Constantinople to visit pearent.

    1921: On October 1, 1921 Sahag Borchanian married Agnes who he had known for 6 months in the Catholic Armenian Patriarchate at Constantinople.

    1921: Passport Application for Agnes Borchanian, age 24, born Afion Karahissar Asia Minor, 1897, husband Sahag Borchanian, Applicant had never resided in the US. An Emergency Pass port was issued at the American Consulate in Istanbul, age 24, 5 ft 4 inches eyes light brown, hair brown .

    1921: List of arriving citizens, Borchanian, Sahag age 31, naturalized, Agnes Borchanian, age 24, naturalized by marriage, Arrival Date: 11 Nov 1921 Port of Departure: Constantinople, Turkey Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Acropolis, to Fitchburg, Mass

    1930: Fitchburg, Mass Sahar Borchanian 40, laborer, road construction, imm 1911, Agnes Borchanian 33, married 10 years,

    1942: Sahag Borchanian Gender: Male Race: White Residence Age: 52 Birth Date: 4 Jan 1890 Birth Place: Sevaz, Armenia Residence Date: 1942 Residence Place: Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, wife Agnes worked for the city highway department.

    1948: Mrs. "Schag"Borchanian won a suit against Norma La Belle of Leominster for injuries received in a pedestrian-automobile accident on June 29, 1946.


    1972: Agnes Borchanian Certificate: 032449 Death Place: Fitchburg Death Date: 3 Aug 1972

    1976: November 9, 1976 Deaths in Fitchburg, Sahag (Sam) Borchanian age 86, of 59 Leighton st, a resident of Fitchburg for 60 years died at Burbank Hospital. He was retired for the Fitchburg department of Public Works. A member of St. Bernard's parish and a WWI Army Veteran he was born in Sivas Armenian Jan 4, 1890 to Abraham Borchanian. he was the widow of the late Agnes nee Gamian who died in 1872. He was survived by a niece, T Topalian* of Worchester and several grand nieces and nephews. *See Topalian.

    Kaspar Borchanian of Pirkinik died in 1766.

  7. Sahg Borchonion and his wife Agnes from 1921 passport photos.

  8. Chigdian/Chegdian

    1917: Mgretich Chigdian (Chiydian or Chegdian) Marital Status: Single Birth Date: 5 Mar 1890 Birth Place: Sivas Pirkinig, Armenia, address: 114 Solvay, Detroit, Wayne, Michigan, USA, machinist, Casting Wheel Co, Mich ave., mother and sister, single, alien, Build: Medium, Height: Medium, Hair Description: Not Bald, Hair Color: Brown, Eye Color: Brown

  9. Derderian, Margos

    1917: Margos Derderian Single Birth Date: 1 Jan 1892, Birth Place: Pirkinik Sivas, Turkey, Address: 990 Main Fitchburg, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, labourer, --- Mfg co fitchburg, Physical Build: Medium Height: Medium Hair Description: Not Bald Hair Color: Black Eye Color: Brown

    1921: Maritza

    1920: Fitchburg, Ward 2, Federal street, Mike Tohamozin 34, Krikor Gelbian 34, Hanparzi Gelbian 45, Harry Domigan 25, Hagob Papogian* 35, imm 1913, single, boarder, naturalized 1919, laborer, cotton mill, Bogas Derm--ngian 31, Sahag Borchanian* 29, single, boarder, laborer, cotton mill, imm 1909 Masgos Derderian* 25

    *Born Pirkinik.

    1930: Margos Desderian 35, laborer, Maritza Desderian 27, Asonder Desderian 6, Florence Desderian 3, Nancy Desderian 0

    1940: Margos Derderian 46 Maritza Derderian 36 Oscar Derderian 16 Florences Derderian 12 Nancy M Derderian 10 Joseph H Derderian 3

    1942: Margos Derderian Gender: Male Race: White Residence Age: 48 Birth Date: 2 Jan 1894 Birth Place: Sivas, Anmenia Residence Date: 1942 Residence Place: Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, pension from US government

    1953: Oscar Derderain married Miss Shake Donoian.

    1972: July 5, Margos Derderian age 79 of Martel st. died at Burbank Hospital. He was born in a suburb of Sivas Armenia Jan 1, 1893 a son of the late Oscar and Florence Derderian and came to Fitchburg in 1912. He was retired form the Public Works Department of the city of Fitchburg. He was a Army veteran of WW1.

    Survived by his widow Maritza Danahashian a son Oscar, daughters Florence, wife of Samuel Samuelian of Dredham and Nancy M wife of Murray B. Cobb of Portsmith, Va. and 7 grandchildren

    1972: September NAME: Margos Derderian BIRTH: 1 Jan 1894 DEATH: 3 Jul 1972 MILITARY: 5 Jul 1918 OTHER: 15 Jan 1919

    1972: Grant an annuity to Mrs. Margos Derderian under provisions of Chapter 32, Section 95A.

    1975: Fitchburg Sentinel 17 Feb 1975 obit of Maritza (Dan Abashian) Derderian age 72 after a long illness, widow of Margos who died in 1972. She was born in sivas turkey in 1902 a daughter of Herbert and Miriam Dan-Abashian. She had lived in Fitchburg for 53 years. survived by her son, Oscar, and two daughters, Florence and Nancy a sister Mrs. Satenig of Istanbul, a son Joseph died in 1963. Seven grandchildren.

  10. The Desirmenjian Family


    Anna Desirmenjian, wife of Nazareth Arevian/Hagopian. See Arevian/Hagopian

  11. The Desirmenjian Family

  12. Domigian/Domijian

    Harry Domigian born Perkinik married Takouhia (Regina) Eminian (See Eminian.)

  13. Eminian, Krikor - born Perkenik date unknown


    1. Hovaness Eminian (180?? - ) and Mannig Morian (1867-??)


      Marriage: Mannik born circa 1867 Pirkinik

      Mannig - maiden name Morian (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)


      1. Alexander Hovaness Eminian (1888-died ??) and Pepron Morian

        Alexander Eminian, wife Pepron Morian Eminian (also Perkiniksi): daughter Shushan (Susan) Eminian, born in Constantinople probably around 1899. I forget her husband's name. No children. Lived in California. Their son Harutuun (I believe born in Massachusetts), wife Zabel (I don't know her maiden name), their children Leo and Linda Eminian, neither had children. Uncle Alex's and Auntie Pepron's other children: Twins Margaret and Mary born in Massachusetts, I believe in the 1920s. Margaret had no children; Mary and her husband Sidney Lipman had daughters Deborah and Pepron. I don't think Debbie has children. Peppie has two sets of twins, AFAIK. Twins run in the family. We have four sets on my father's side. (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)

        1888: Birth of Alexander Eminian, March 5, 1888 Sivas turkey per D or I

        Marriage: Pepron Morian May 18, 1908


        1. Susanne 1909 Constantinople - Married an Armenian(TES)

          1935: Declaration of Intention - State of Maine, Superior Court Andros Gogin Auburn Maine, Susan Eminian 191 Pine Street, Lewiston, Andros Coggin, Maine, stitcher factory age 26, brunetter, brown eyes, 5 ft 5 inches, 129 pounds, Armenian, born Constantinople Turkey August 15, 1909 single, immigrated from Marseilles, France, to Providence R. I. on the S. S.Germania arriving New York Nove 30, 1913.

          1993: Death - Susan Nargis, [Susan Eminian], Social Security #: 005075168, Gender: Female, Birth Date: 15 Aug 1909, Birth Place: Other Country, Death Date: 1 May 1993, Death Place: Fresno, Mother's Maiden Name: Morian, Father's Surname: Eminian

        2. Harutin AKA Harry Sept 29, 1915 Milford Mass

          Harry Eminian, SSN: 007-03-9473, Last Residence: 01801 Woburn, Middlesex, Massachusetts, USA, BORN: 28 Sep 1914, Died: Oct 1979 State (Year) SSN issued: Maine (Before 1951)

          Married Zabel (I don't know her maiden name), daughter Linda (married/divorced); son Leo (never married) fraternal twins (TES, July 2108)

        3. Mary 1922

          Mary Philomena Eminian, [Mary P Lipman] , [Mary Lipman] , Gender: Female, Race: White, Birth Date: 11 Jul 1921, Birth Place: Worcester, Massachusetts, Death Date: Mar 1992, Father: Alexander Eminian, Mother: Pepron Morian, SSN: 004169673, Notes: Jul 1938: Name listed as MARY PHILOMENA EMINIAN; May 1963: Name listed as MARY P LIPMAN; 04 Apr 1992: Name listed as MARY LIPMAN

        4. Mary married Sidney Lipman, their daughters Deborah (married no kids to my knowledge) (TES July 2018)

        5. Margaret 1922 (twins)

          (never married TES July 2108)

        1913: Immigration of Pepron and Susanna - The Germania from Marseilles November 15 arriving New York November 30, 1913, Erminian Pepron age 22, wife, 5 feet 4 inches, Suzanne daughter, age 3, both born Sivas, father Megradich Morian, to husband and father Alexander Eminian 409 Wickensen st, Providence, R. I.

        1930: Denny street, Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA Alexander Eminian 42, born Turkey, imm 1910, coal dealer, proprietor, Pepron Eminian 39, born Turkey, imm 1914, Susan Eminian 20, born Turkey, imm 1914, Harry Eminian 15, born Mass., Mary Eminian 8, born Mass., Margaret Eminian 8 born Mass., Armenig Harigian 58, relative, born Turkey imm 1905

        own home value, $5,500,

        1940: Declaration of Intention of Alexander Eminian, District of Massachusetts, Boston US District Court, Alexander Hovannes Eminain 81 West Walnut Park Roxbury, Suffolk Mass. Iron molder age 51, brown eyes black hair, 5 ft 7 inches, Armenian born Sivas Turkey March 5, 1888, married May 18, 1908 Constantinople, Turkey, wife, Papron, born Sivas Turkey Aug 10, 1891, imm to Providence R. I., November 1914, 4 children: Susan aug 15, 1909 Constantinople, Harry, Sept 29, 1915 Milford Mass, Mary and Margaret (twins) July 20, 1922 Worcester, Mass., He immigrated from Patras Greece, to New York, September 9, 1910 on the SS Argentina.

        1942: WWII Draft Registration Alexander H Eminian Age: 54 Birth Date: 5 Mar 1888 Birth Place: Sivas, Armenia Residence Date: 1942 Residence Place: Mid, Massachusetts, USA, wife, Pepron,

        Garabad Eminian - World War I (Courtesy of Therese Schoen)

        Alexander Hovannes Eminian - 1940 Declaration of Intention

        Susan Eminian - 1940 Declaration of Intention

      2. Garabad Eminian born Pirkinik circa 1889, imm to US

        Birth: Garabed - second born son, born "during Lent 1889" (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)

        Marriage: Magdalene Mildred Lehmann (Therese Eminian Schoen, Juley 2018)


          Therese Antoinette Eminian Schoen (August 12, 1942 Annpolis, MD.

          1960: T. Eminian was a sophomore at St. Mary's Highs School, Annapoli in 1960.

          1981 Marriage: Therese Antoinette Eminian Gender: Female Race: White Age: 38 Birth Date: 12 Aug 1942 Marriage Date: 23 May 1981 Marriage Place: Arlington, Virginia, USA Registration Place: Arlington, Virginia, USA Father: Garabed Eminian Mother: Magdalene M Lehman Spouse: Gerhard Werner Schon Spouse Gender: Male Spouse Race: White Spouse Age: 30 Spouse Birth Date: 24 Sep 1950 Spouse Father: Engelbert Schon Spouse Mother: Elisabeth Pachler

          Gerhard born in Austria has an MA and PhD all but disertation from Catholic U. of America in DC, no children, I have MA The Johns Hopkins Univ./SAIS, Washington DC (TES July 2018)

          Therese Antoinette Eminian born August 12, 1942 in Annapolis, MD. Married Gerhard Werner Schoen on May 23, 1981 in Arlington, VA. Gerhard was born in Austria; died June 15, 2018 in Centennial, CO. FYI, this is a link to his Obit (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)

        1917 WWI Draft Registration: Garabed Eminian Race: Caucasian (White) Single Birth 15 "February" 1889 Place: Perkinik, Sivas, Armenia, Armenia 59 Grand St Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut, USA Physical Build: Medium Height: Tall Hair Description: Not Bald Hair Color: Black Eye Color: Brown, machinist, Pratt & Whitney, alien, single,

        1930: Garabed Eminian, on a list of notary public, Residence Year: 1930 Residence Place: Everett, Massachusetts, USA Publication Title: Everett, Massachusetts, City Directory, 1930

        1942: Garabed Eminian born March 15, 1889 in Perkenig Sivas Armenia, self employed Annapolis, Md, Magdalena Eminian

      3. 1959: Garabed C Eminian Gender: Male Residence Year: 1959 Street address: 60 West Residence Place: Annapolis, Maryland, USA Spouse: Magadalene L Eminian Publication Title: Annapolis, Maryland, City Directory, 1959

        1970: Gerabed Eminian Gender: Male Birth Date: 15 Mar 1889 Death Date: 31 Jul 1970 SSN: 218323274 Branch 1: ARMY Enlistment Date 1: 3 May 1918 Release Date 1: 4 Jun 1919

        1970: Garaded C Eminian Event Type Burial Event Date 1970 Event Place Baltimore, Baltimore City, Maryland, United States of America Photograph Included N Birth Date 15 Jun 1889 Death Date 31 Jul 1970 Affiliate Record Identifier 623621 Cemetery Baltimore National Cemetery

        1972: Magdelene Eminian had a Beauty Palour at 160 West Street, (city?) advertised in the Annapolis Capital

        2001: Age 93, Given Name Magdalene, Middle Name M, Surname Eminian, Birth Date 25 May 1908, State Maryland, Last Place of Residence Baltimore, Maryland, Previous Residence Postal Code 21221, Event Date 08 Jun 2001

      4. George Eminian (dob ??) (3rd son of Hovannes and Mannig)

      5. "Uncle Georgie (third son) was in the Turkish army and died of natural causes. He was well liked and his body was returned to the family which I've heard was an unusual courtes. By that time, my grandparents were in Constantinople, living in Shishli. My father always said that the Turks had killed him but my cousin, Anahid (Diana) PhD Smith University, said that it was kidney disease.

        .....Uncle Georgie was not married; died without children. " (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)

        "My grandfather, great-grandfather and Uncle Georgie (third son, born in Perkenik) are all buried in the Perkeniksi section of the Armenian cemetary in Shishli, Pera, Constantinople/Istanbul. (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)

      6. Takouhi AKA Regina Emanian c 1897 married Harry Domigian/Domijian

        Takouhi AKA Regina c 1897

        Maternal Aunt Takouhi (Regina) married Harutun (Harry) Domigian (also Perkeniksi), had two daughters Martha married Philip Domenico in Worcester, MA, and Alice (died about five years ago in Worcester, MA) who married Francis Mard, also deceased. Fran was a PhD in I think biochemistry. Martha and Phil had one son, Phillip who lives in Texas (unmarried, no children) and Jeanne divorced (I forget her husband's name at the moment) with a daughter, Catherine and twin boys (I have to check on their names - never met them). Alice and Fran had one son, I think Michael. I believe he's either a radio announcer or work in TV. I've never met some of these younger cousins. I live in Colorado; they're in Texas or New England and we're not close. I'm much better acquainted with my Mother's Irish side although I knew my paternal aunts and uncles and their children well. I'm also close to my late husband's cousins in Austria and Germany. (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)

        1923: Regina Eminian 64 Lewis Street, Everett, intention of marriage to Harry Domejian 142 Claredon street 6 July 1923

        1942: Harry Joseph Domigian, Gender: Male, Race: White, Residence Age: 49, Birth Date: 15 May 1893, Birth Place: Sivas, Armenia, Residence Date: 1942, Residence Place: Worcester, Massachusetts, USA

        Death: Harry Domigian SSN: 017-09-1898 Last Residence: 01605 Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA BORN: 15 May 1889 Died: Jun 1978 State (Year) SSN issued: Massachusetts (Before 1951)

        Death: Regina Domigian Certificate: 031431 Death Place: Worcester Death Date: 11 May 1983 Birth Place: Other Birth Date: 16 Dec 1897

      7. John Batiste Eminian AKA Meguerditvh Eminian (1902- )

        Meguerditch AKA John Batiste born circa 1902

        Uncle John (Mgerdich- Jean Baptiste) born 1900 in Constantinople. You might be right about 1902. Married Marie Devijian whose first husband, Albert's father, died of TB. Son of Auntie Marie was Albert (Albie), married Martha (I don't know her family name; not Armenian) whose first husband either died or they were divorced. She has one daughter. I forget her name, I think Ellen but I'm not sure. It'll come to me. Al and Martha live in CT. Actually, their home is down the road from Paul Newman's home. (Therese Eminian Schoen, July 2018)

        1921: Naturalization of Meguerditch Eminian age 19, shoe worker, height, 5 feet 123 pounds, scar on neck born Constantinople on 15 September 1902 residence 63 Lewis street, Everett Mass. single, imm from Patras Greece on the King Alexander imm 6 Jan 1921

        1928: Meguerditch Eminian age 25, changed his name to John Batiste Eminian March 26, 1928.

        Marriage: Married Marie Duhterian Devejian - 1934. Eminian Spouse's Name Marie Devejian Event Year 1934 License Number 645195 Pennsylvania, index

        1940: Boston, Mass., John B Eminian 37, foreman, shoe manf, Marie Eminian 30, stitcher, show co., Albert Devyian 12, son

        1990: NAME: Marie D. Eminian BIRTH: 22 May 1908 DEATH: 22 Jul 1990 - Jamaica Plain, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA CIVIL: Massachusetts

        Marie Eminian Birth Date: 22 May 1908 Birth Place: Ankara, Turkey Death Date: 22 Jul 1990 Death Place: United States of America Cemetery: Mount Auburn Cemetery Burial or Cremation Place: Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States of America Mother: Sima Duhterian Spouse: Eugene Devejian

        1992: John B. Eminian SSN: 017-05-4641 Last Residence: 02130 Jamaica Plain, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA BORN: 17 Aug 1900 Died: Mar 1992

        John B. Eminian Birth Date: 17 Aug 1902 Birth Place: Turkey Death Date: 11 Mar 1992 Death Place: Jamaica Plain, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States of America Cemetery: Mount Auburn Cemetery Burial or Cremation Place: Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States of America

      8. Victoria Eminian (1907-) married Aram Zacarian

        Victoria born Constantinople circa 1907

        "Married Aram Zacarian (I believe from Romania - had some interesting WWI stories involving the Sultan's hareem! - one son, Setrak, a physician who supposedly discovered a cure for a form of melanoma, from Uncle Aram's first marriage. Anahid (Diana) from their union born July 1942 I think in Boston or perhaps Jamaica Plain. Auntie had been married previously but her husband died I believe of TB. (Therese Emanian Schoen, July 2108)
        1922: On the SS Acropolis from Constantinople June 11, 1922, Eminian, Mannik age 55, housekeeper, widow, Victoria age 18, single, arrival at New York 7 Jul 1922, Armenian Port of Departure: Constantinople, Turkey, Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Acropolis from cousin Techkie Eminian 12 Rue Tcheupruk Pera Constantinople, to Everett Mass. to son and brother Garabad Eminian 64 Lewis street Everett, Mass. both born Perkenik. both 5 feet tall.

        1922: Petition for Naturalization - US District court of Massachusetts - Victoria Zacarian 306 Centre St Jamaica Plain, Mass. shoe worker, born Constantinople November 1, 1907, Armenian, "omitted pursuant Act. Sept 22, 1922 as amended" my husband nat. Sept 27, 1926 Boston cert 2375603 - 2nd marriage, husband, Aram born at Shumshizek, Turkey August 15, 1898, immigrated at New York City in 1922, Victoria immigrated from Constantinople to New York July 7, 1922 on the Acropolis. Petition filed unde Sec. 2 Act of Sept. 22, 1922.

        See 1922 Cable Act

        1930: Census Boston Aram S Zacarian Head M 32 Armenia, baker, delicatessen, Victoria Zacarian Wife F 23 "Egypt", clerk, delicatessen, im 1922 Setrac Zacarian Son M 8 Massachusetts, Minge Emineien Mother-in-law F 65 Armenia, imm 1922

        1936: Naturalization of Victoria Zacarian, Boston Mass., shoe worker born Constantinople, Nov. 1, 1907, married husband Aram, arrived under the name Victoria Eminian July 7, 1922 on the Acropolis. Eminina, Victoria certificate of arrival on July 7, 1922 on the Acropolis - witness Marie Eminian, housewife, 27 Chestnug Ave. Jamaica Plains, Mass.

        1989: Victoria A Zacarian, [Victoria A Eminian], Gender: Female, Race: White, Birth Date: 15 Nov 1905, Birth Place: Constantinop, Turkey, Death Date: 7 Nov 1989, Father: John H Eminian, Mother: Mannig Tchatalian E, SSN: 011508101, Notes: 26 Jul 1972: Name listed as VICTORIA A ZACARIAN

      1922: Mannik Eminian Arrival Date: 7 Jul 1922 Birth Date: abt 1867 Birth Location: Armenia Perkenik Age: 55 Gender: Female, Ethnicity/ Nationality: Armenian Port of Departure: Constantinople, Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Acropolis, housekeeper, and Victoria age 18 female, from cousin Techkie Eminian 12 Rue Tcheupruk, Pera, Constantinople, to Everett Mass., to son, "Cabared" Eminian 64 Lewis St. Everett, Mass both born Perkinik, Sivas, Turkey

      1926-27: Two listings for Eminian in Everett - both at 142 Main, John Shomeaker, and M Chas (Annie) shoemaker

  14. The Hagian/Hajian Family

    Hagian (Hajian)

    1. Bishop Giovanni Hagian (AKA John Hajian) was born in Perkenik in 1802. In 1850 he was ordained the Bishop of Cesarea di Cappadocia. He was a council father at the First Vatican Council in 1869-70.

      Born, 1 Jun 1803 Born Perkenik - 1850 46.5 Appointed Bishop of Cesarea di Cappadocia (Armenian), Turkey - 2 Jun 1850 47.0 Ordained Bishop Bishop of Cesarea di Cappadocia (Armenian), Turkey - 8 May 1880 76.9 Died Bishop of Cesarea di Cappadocia (Armenian), Turkey - bishop for 29 years
    2. Isacco Hajian, Archbishop of Sebastia, born in Perkinik in 1837.
      6 May 1837 Born Pirkinik - 8 Apr 1892 54.9 Appointed Bishop of Sivas {Sebaste} (Armenian), Turkey - 2 Jun 1892 55.0 Appointed Archbishop of Sivas {Sebaste} (and Tokat {Toqat}) (Armenian), Turkey - Aug 1892 55.2 Ordained Bishop Archbishop of Sivas {Sebaste} (and Tokat {Toqat}) (Armenian), Turkey - 6 May 1905 68.0 Resigned Archbishop of Sivas {Sebaste} (and Tokat {Toqat}) (Armenian), Turkey - 6 May 1905 68.0 Appointed Titular Archbishop of Pessinus - 1908 70.6 Died Archbishop Emeritus of Sivas {Sebaste} (and Tokat {Toqat}) (Armenian), Turkey

    See more below under Bishop Hajian's List

  15. Jelebian/Chelebian

    Jelebian Mardiros age 21 born Pirkinik, Sebastia, Armenia, Turkey, ? 2, 1896, alien, single, machine tender, Iver Johnson Arms co., 21 Huron street, Fitchburg, Mass., tall medium build, brown eyes brown hair

    1918: Death - Mardiros H Jelebian Event Type Burial Event Date 1918 Event Place Fitchburg, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America Photograph Included N Birth Date 02 Apr 1897 Death Date 11 Jun 1918 Affiliate Record Identifier 134039285 Cemetery Saint Joseph Cemetery

    Maderice "Jelebean" son of Hampasziam and Veronika Jelebean died of lymphangitis

    Find a Grave

  16. The Kazanjian Family

    Kaghanjian, Marta listed by the Armenian Immigration Project.

    Marta Kaghanjian or Kazjian/Kazanjain was the mother of Miriam who married Hagop Papoojian. Martha was born in Pirkinik circa 1835.

    Kazanjian —

    "Margaret said that her grandmother's maiden name was Kazanjian. Her grandmother left the village prior to 1915. There she worked in a rug factory. Her father upon receiving a tip from a Turk that a future genocide may occur left the village with his family in 1912. Margaret lives in Toronto." Robert Haroutunian, March 2007.

  17. The Kricorian Family


    Kricorian (Mathieu), mechanic, born July 21, 1874 in Pirkinik (Turkey), residing in Levallois-Perret (Seine), rue de Gravel, 30 [Journal officiel de la Republique francaise. Lois et decrets -Journaux officiels (Paris)-1915]

  18. Margossian, Soukias born 1881 son of Bedras

    Immigration: 1903 per naturalization petition

    Marriage: Christine

    10 Jun 1907 Milford, Massachusetts, USA, Sougras Margossian age 26 born Turkey, molder, Father: Bedras Margossian Mother: Versonig Diermengian Spouse: Krisdine Diermengian age 28 born Turkey, Spouse Father: Migndick Dennenjean Spouse Mother: Vardouki Hovakmian, first marriage for both
    1910: Milford, Worcester, Massachusetts Soukias P "Margorion" 29, foundry, Christin Margorion 19, wife, married 3 years no children, both born Turkey Armenians

    1912: Massachusetts Petition of Naturalization record - Soukias Pedros Margosian Age: 30 Birth 3 Sep 1881 Pirkinik, Sivas Turkey Arrival from Naples Italy 4 Oct 1903 to New York on the Cecelia, Petition Date: 22 Apr 1912 Spouse: Christina Witness #1: John B Connolly Witness #2: James H Brunt, 49 Prospect Heights, Milford, Mass. brass molder

    1818: Soukias Pedros Margossian Race: White Birth Date: 3 Sep 1881 Street address: 242 K St Residence Place: Fresno, Fresno, California, USA Physical Build: Slender Height: 5-9 Hair Color: Dark Brown Eye Color: Brown Relative: Harry Rusligan

    1920: Fresno California, Sokrian age 39, farmer, Christine age 28

    1940: Fresno, S P Margossian 56, widowed, laborer, Margaret Margossian 9, daughter, born California

    1966: Soukias Margossian SSN: 552-54-3841 Last Residence: 93219 Earlimart, Tulare, California, USA BORN: 12 Sep 1880 Died: Jan 1966

  19. Morian

  20. Pepron - See Eminian

    Mannik - See Eminian

  21. Mouradjian

    Khacig Mouradjian listed by the Armenian Immigration Project.

  22. Papoujian/Papoojian

    Hagop and Miriam (Mary) Papoojian:


    1. Helen

      Helen was living in Washington D. C. in August 1948

      She married in 1952 husband?

    2. Regina

      2010: Death - Regina M Papoojian Palmieri, Event Type Obituary, Event Date 05 Sep 2010, Event Place Fitchburg, Massachusetts, United States, Residence Place Worcester, Gender Female, Occupation Business Owner, Instructor, Birthplace Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Death Date 31 Aug 2010, Burial Place Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Newspaper Sentinel & Enterprise, father, Hagop Papoojian mother, Mary Kazanjian

    3. Philip

      Sgt. Philip Papoojian U. s. Marine corp stationed at Oceanside, Calif., was engaged in 1951 to Delores Ann Membrino

      1998: Philip John Papoojian, [Philip J Papoojian], SSN: 033145056, Gender: Male, Race: White, Birth Date: 4 Jan 1927, Birth Place: Fitchburg Wo, Massachusetts, Death Date: 29 Mar 1998, Father: John Papoojian, Mother: Marion Kazanjin, Type of Claim: Original SSN.

    1917: Hagop Papoojian Miles City, Custer, Mont, age 35, born Jun 25, 1883, labourer, S. M. and St. P. Ry. Miles City, Mont, wife, Miriam Papoojian Sivas, Perkenik, Turkey medium height, slender built brown hair and eyes.

    1920: Fitchburg, Ward 2, Federal street, Mike Tohamozin 34, Krikor Gelbian 34, Hanparzi Gelbian 45, Harry Domigan 25, Hagob Papogian 35, imm 1913, single, boarder, naturalized 1919, laborer, cotton mill, Bogas Derm--ngian 31, Sahag Borchanian* 29, single, boarder, laborer, cotton mill, imm 1909 Masgos Derderian 25

    * See above.

    1930: Listed under on Ancestry as "Papragian" Pratt street, Fitchburg, Mass. Hageb Papoogian 42, laborer railroad, Mary Papoogian 42 Helen Papoogian 7 Ragnes Papoogian 4 Philip Papoogian 3 Martha Krzngein 95, mother in law, widow, all imm 1920 except children who were all born Mass.

    1935: Hagop Papoojian, paper worker, Petition, age 52, Birth Date: 25 Jun 1883 Birth Place: "Parkenis" Armenia, Turkey Arrival Date: 12 Dec 1912 Arrival Place: New York, New York Petition Date: 13 Nov 1935 Spouse: Mary Kazjian Petition Number: 165136 Boston, Massachusetts, address 3 Pratt st, Fitchburg, Mass. married wife, Mary Kazjian, Sept 1910 at Parkenis, Armenia, born Parkinis 1882 immigrated Nov 1920 - children Helen Feb 12, 1924, Regina Sept 9, 1925 and Philip P Jan 4, 1927 all born fitchburg. last foreign residence, Suez, Armenia, imm from Harve, France under the name Hagop Pabourdjian on December 12, 1912 on the Chicago.

  23. Pabogkian [Paboujian], Marcos, (1887-)

    Immigration: Pabogkian [Paboujian], Marcos, 26 M 1913-05-16 (New York) / Ivernia, Sivas (Pirkinik), Sivas, Turkey 309 Columbus Ave. / New York, NY, USA (Armenian Immigration Project)

    Pabogkian, ---icos, age smudge, line 16, Armenian from Pirkinik, Brother Loukas Pabogkian, -erkinik to Mass, born Perkinik Sivas

    Canard index to passenger list, Mar May 1913 Pabogkian, Marcos age 36, to Amille Fork Mass

  24. Paputian, Pilibos

    Immigration: Pilibos Paputian, Last Place of Residence Pirkinik, Turkey, Date of Arrival, 08 Jul 1913, Age 18y, Nationality Turkish, Armenian, Departure Port Trieste, Arrival Port New York, Gender Male, Marital Status S, Ship Name Alice, farm laborer, mother Vartonik Paputian Pirkinik Turkey

  25. Shikatian, Abraham

    Immigration: Shikatian, Abraham 43 M 1913-05-16 (New York) / Ivernia Sivas (Pirkinik), Sivas, Turkey 309 Columbus Ave. / New York, NY, USA (Armenian Immigration Project)

    Abraham Shikatian Arrival 17 May 1913 born Pirkinik, Age: 40 Gender: Male Armenian Port of Departure: Trieste Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Ivernia, line 15, father Toros (?) Shikatian Pirkinik, to New York

    In NY from 1906 to 1909 born Pirkinik Sivas

  26. The Topalian Family

    Topalian Family

    per Theresa Topalian, July 2008

    Zakar Topalian, born November 1, 1890 in Perkinik, Sivas, Armenia, medium build, short, brown eyes and hair, Fitchburg, Worcester, Massachusetts, registered for the WWI Draft Registration in 1917. Additional information: alien, single, soldier Turkish. There are things I cannot make out as the image is fuzzy. It is interesting that he specifically listed Perkinik and Sivas. Most men only listed the county of birth.

    Joe Topalian is the translator from Armenian to English of The History of the Village of Perkenik (Pakradunik) by Fr. Ephrem Boghossian C. M. Vd (Mechitharist of Vienna, Austria)

    1917: Fitchburg Mass. White Horse for sale $20, Zakar Toplaina 185 River st.

    1917: Fitchburg Mass. 10 Good Milk Cows, 1 horse, 75 hens, 100 chickens, cow manure, cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes, corn, Zakar Topalian, Shattuck Farm, Rindge rd.

    1918: Zakar Topalian 24 Federal street, Fitchburg, Mass. soldier farmer, born 1 November 1889 Sivas Armenia, immig 28 May 1913 from Salonika, to New York, vessel unknown.

    1918: Zakar Topalian Single Birth Date: 1 Nov 1890 Birth Place: Pirkinik Sivas, Armenia address: Rindge Rd Fitchburg, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA Physical Build: Stout Height: Medium Hair Description: Not Bald Hair Color: Brown Eye Color: Brown - farmer, soldier in Turkey, 3 months,

    1930: Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts, 9 Bancroft, "Lakar" Topalian 35, head, imm 1913, molder, steel foundry, Bernardine Topalian 28,imm 1923 (?), Christine Topolian 7, daughter, Garabed Topalian 5, son, Joseph Topalian 4, son, children born in Mass. Frank Balain 30, brother in law, drawer, wire mill

    1940: Zakar Topalain 50, molder loom shop, Bernadine Topalain 38, Christine Topalain 17, Garabed Topalain 15, Joseph Topalain 14, Paul Topalain 8/12

    1942: Zakar Topalian Gender: Male Race: White Residence Age: 52 Birth Date: 1 Nov 1890 Birth Place: Sivas, Armenia Residence Date: 1942, 7 Bluff street, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA

    1954: Joseph Topalian 18 Aug 1954 Birth Massachusetts Worcester Port of Departure: Le Havre Port of Arrival: New York, New York Ship Name: Ryndam, tourist class

    "Zakar" Topalian SSN: 027-09-3626 Residence: 01610 Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA BORN: 1 Apr 1887 Died: Dec 1970

    Bernardine Topalian SSN: 010-50-3122 Residence: 01610 Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA BORN: 14 Mar 1900 Died: Oct 19

    Garabed Topalian Residence: 01501 Auburn, Worcester, Massachusetts BORN: 25 Apr 1924 Died: 7 Jul 2007

  27. Astrazadurian

    Der Astrazadurian also spelt Asdvadzadurian

    Michele Derastrazadurian, Cilicia delgi Armeni, Ciliciae Armenorum, Michaele Derastrazadurian, nato in Pirkinik, Archidiocesi de Sebaste, nel 1788, promosso da Cesarea in partibus 25 Gennaio 1844 col nome di Gregorio Pietro VIII"

    Annuario pontificio, By Catholic Church, Curia Romana, 1861

    [Celecia in Armenia, Melkon Derastrazadurian, born in Pirkinik, Archdiocese of Sivas in 1788 promoted at Cesarea in partibus 25 January 1844 with the name Gregory Peter VIII, Annuario pontificio, By Catholic Church, Curia Romana, 1861]

    In Partibus Infidelium (often shortened to in partibus, or abbreviated as i.p.i.), is a Latin phrase meaning "in the lands of unbelievers"


    He died in 1866 according to various lists of the Armenian Catholic Patriarchs of Cilicia.

  28. Korkorouni


    Leon Korkorouni — Mgr Korkorouni

    Archeveque Armenien Catholique de Malatia (Melitene). [Armenian Catholic Archbishop of Malatia]

    "Mgr Korkorouni etait ne a Pirkinik pres Sivas, le 20 juin 1822; il avait fair se etudes au Seminaire patriarcal de Bzomar (Liban), ou il avait ete appele au sacerdoce. C'est le avril 1861 qu'il avait ete preconice archeveque de Melitene. Sa mort a eu liue le 15 aout"

    Annales de la propagation de la foi, Volumes 69-70, 1897

    [Bishop Korkouni was born in Pirkinik near Sivas, June 20, 1822; he studied .... Bzomar (Lebanon), where he was called to the priesthood. Since April 1861 he had been archbishop of .... Melitene. He died ... August 15.]

  29. Gharipecan


    Died 18 June 1915 in Tokat (a.k.a. Eudocia) (Turkey)

    ISEVUHI GHARIPEVAN, professed religious, Armenian Sisters of the Immaculate Conception born: 06 November 1879 in Brgnik, Sivas (Turkey)

    Martyrs of Armenia

  30. Madoian


    Fr. Sahag Madoian (vdpt.) Sivas (Sebastia) Sivas (Sebastia), Brgink, Apostolic, Martyr, Born 1872 in Brgnik; studied in Zmmar; ordained as vardapet in 1896. Losses of the Armenian Church During the Genocide, Priests

  31. Shanamian


    Fr. Sahag Shahnamian (vdpt.) Sivas (Sebastia) Sivas (Sebastia), Brgink, Apostolic, Martyr, Born 1884 in Brgnik; studied in Zmmar; ordained 1907. Losses of the Armenian Church During the Genocide, Priests

  32. Asdvadzadurian


    Fr. Mikayel Der-Asdvadzadurian (vdpt.), Sivas (Sebastia), Sivas (Sebastia), Brgink, Apostolic, Martyr, Born 1873 in Brgnik; studied in Zmmar; ordained 1896. Losses of the Armenian Church During the Genocide, Priests

  33. See also History of Perkinik Chapter 18

In chapter 20 Joe Tapolian talks of a photo taken in Constantinople circa 1919 that included the following people from Pirkinik:
  1. Kulhanjian - Topalian

    Mrs. Takouhi Kulhanjian (later Topalian)

    "Then a young widow whose husband was taken away and who had lost her children in the death marches, later became Mrs. Topalian and raised her new family in the Bronx and Manhattan" [JT]

    1921: Hovaness Topalian, Takouhi, workman Armenian, age 38, last place of residence Bristal Pa, US, his wife, Topalian, age 27, Last Place of Residence Silvas, Turkey, 02 Jul 1921, Age 27y, Nationality Armenian, Departure Port Constantinople, Arrival Port New York, Gender Female, Marital Status M, Ship Name King Alexander, father of Hovannes Serope Topalina 291 Great St Pera, to Jos cousin Peter Topalian, Cambridge, Mass, to Worcester, Mass. crossed out, both born "Sivas"

    1924: Naturalization papers for John Topalian, 207 29th street, silver polisher, born Sivas Turkey 3 March 1882m imm from Havre, France, 3 November 1912, on the Chicago to New York, wife, Takochi born May 4, 1894, Sivas Turkey, two children Josephine born March 12, 1922 and Joseph born Sept 27, 1923.

    1930: 138 street Bronx, John Topalian 45, porter, office building, imm 1912, 1st marriage age 25, Regenia Topalian 35, 1st marriage at age 17, imm 1921, Josephine Topalian 7 Joseph Topalian 6 John Topalian 0

    1940: 138 Street New York, Bronx, New York, Takenlie Topalian 45, Josephine Topalian 18, typist, Joseph Topalian 16, John Topalian 10

    1956: Takouhi Topalian Birth Date: 12 Mar 1895 Age: 61 Naturalization Date: 4 Jun 1956 Residence: New York, New York Title and Location of Court: New York Southern District

    Death Bronx, 1977: Takouhi Topalian SSN: 075-16-5369 Last Residence: 10463 Bronx, Bronx, New York, USA BORN: 12 Mar 1895 Died: Sep 1977

  2. Mariam Papoojian

    Mrs. Mariam Paboujjian

    A young woman, later to settle with her husband and raise a family in Fitchburg, MA. [JT]

    See Papoojian

  3. Sarkis Morian

    Sarkis Morian

    "A young man, later to marry and raise a family outside Boston, MA." [JT]

    1920: October 2, 1920 from Piraeus to New York on the Themistocles Morian, Sarkis, age 21, workman, born Sivas to Worcester, Mass. no family listed in Turkey, to brother in law Alex Eminian 36 Samaster st Worcester Mass born Sivas turkey

    1935: Affie Lawand Gender: Female Residence: Lewiston, ME Spouse's Name: Sarkis Morian Spouse's Gender: Male Spouse's Residence: Lewiston, ME Marriage Date: 21 Feb 1935 Marriage Place: Maine, USA

    1940: Lewiston, Androscoggin, Maine Sarkis Morian 39, workman, shoe factory, born Armenia, Eva Morian 35, Syria, Sandra Morian 3 John Morian 2, children born Maine Death: Of Eva Lawland Marian

    Eva Morian SSN: 110-22-1261 Last Residence: 02026 Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts, USA BORN: 24 Dec 1904 Died: 7 Jun 1988

    Eva Marian [Eva Morian] [Eva Lawand] SSN: 110221261 Gender: Female Race: White Birth Date: 23 Dec 1905 Birth Place: Syria Death Date: 7 Jun 1988 Father: Simon Lawand Mother: Mary Lawand Claim Date: 19 Jul 1967 Type of Claim: Original SSN. Notes: Sep 1945: Name listed as EVA MARIAN; 14 Jul 1967: Name listed as EVA MORIAN

    Sarkis Morian SSN: 005-07-5319 Last Residence: 02026 Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts, USA BORN: 5 Jun 1896 Died: 29 Mar 1989 State (Year) SSN issued: Maine (Before 1951)

    Sarkes Morian Gender: Male Spouse: Eva Lawand Child: John Morian

  4. Hovhannes Jelebian

    Hovhannes Jelebian

    "An early teenager; was he the Jelebian who was in Fitchburg, MA. and later Detroit, MI. or a relative?" [JT]

    See Jelebian

  5. Hovsep Topalian

    Joe Topalian did not know if he was a relative of his.

  6. Miss Srpouhi Modoyian

    Unknown to Joe Topalian

  7. Stepan Ogayian

    Unknown to Joe Topalian

  8. Bedros Asdvadzadourian

    "A young teenager; related I believe to the "Derderian" family that (used to) live(s) in Fitchburg, MA." [JT]

    Krikor Bedros VIII Der Asdvadzadourian born Perkinik died 9 January 1866 was the Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia. Patriarch Gregory Petros VIII (Michael) Der-Asduazadrian - Patriarch of Cilicia (Armenian), Lebanon 17 Jul 1843 Selected Patriarch of Cilicia (Armenian), Lebanon - 25 Jan 1844 Confirmed Patriarch of Cilicia (Armenian), Lebanon - 9 Jan 1866 Died Patriarch of Cilicia (Armenian), Lebanon

    Catholic Patriarchs

In Chapter 22 Joe Topalian mentioned but did not offer any clarification on the following people:

  1. Aristakes Azarian See Azarian

  2. Dr. Peter Tarpinian

  3. Mgrdich Epremian

  4. Mgrdich Gharibian

  5. Stephan Balabanian

  6. Joseph Reissian

Images Of Village Life

These scenes of village life are carved out of wood. They were hanging on the walls of a kebob shop in Sivas. The manager gave me permission to photograph them.

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

Photo Maggie Land Blanck

More Images Of Village Life

The backs of these two post cards say the same thing:


This typical picture of agricultural life in Armenian was painted in the neighborhood of the village of Lagh-Keny, which is situated a short distance from Ismidt, and important town of about 15,000 inhabitants in Asia Minor. The surrounding country is flat and very fertile, the chief products grown being corn, maize, potatoes, tobacco, and vegetables. Man of the methods in vogue and implements in use are of a delightfully primitive character."

  • Ismidt is currently called Izmit. It is located about 110 Km southwest of Istanbul on Gulf of Izmit in the Sea of Marmara at the edge of Anatolia. It was the site of a major earthquake in 1999.

  • Corn in Europe equals wheat in the USA.

  • Maize in Europe equals corn in the USA.

  • The method of sowing and threshing the corn (wheat) would have been similar in Pirkinik.

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

Sowing Corn

Planting was done after the snow had melted in the spring. Sowing was done in the traditional form of a cross: one handful to for God, one for the tax man, one for the birds and one for the villager himself. (Armenia Sebastia/Sivas and Lesser Armenia)

Postcard collection of Maggie Land Blanck

"Threshing Corn"

Most likely the "corn" was wheat or barley.

The plowing of the fields was done by men. The reaping was done by women who also winnowed and cleaned the grain after the men threashed it .

Armenian Massacres and Turkish Tyranny, 1896, Collection of Maggie Land Blanck


Pirkinik — Google Earth

Google Earth

Pirkinik as seen on Google Earth

1. location of the bath pictured above.

2. location of the building, with the Armenian writing on it, pictured above.

Pirkinik in print

Over the years travelers to Turkey visited Sivas and the outlying village of Pirkinik. Perodically comments were made about the village in travel books. The village was also mentioned in some publications of the Roman Catholic church as several Roman Catholic Bishops and Archbishops were born in Pirkinik and there was an obvious missionary interest by both Catholic and Protestants in the area.

These writings were in French, Italian, Latin, German and English. If you read French, Italian or German please excuse my translations. My knowledge of German is very poor. My French is very sketchy. My Italian is passable.

I used the assistance of Google translation (which, I have to say, is one of the most helpful things on the Internet.)

Another fabulous Google source is "Google Book" from which most of the excerpts on Pirkinik are taken.

Thank you Google!!

1781 and 1801

"Nous trouvames le musselim et sa cour au hameau de Pirkinik , a une lieue de Syvas. Il dormait quand nous arrivames. Il fallut attendre dans la rue. La chaumiere, son asile, etait composee d'un grenier et d'une ecurie, remplie de ceux de son parti, qui y tenaient conseil. Un quart d'heure apres, on nous introduisit. Nous le trouvames fort abattu, et dans un etat a faire pitie. C'etait un bel homme de moyen age, et qui paraissait fort doux. Les ceremonies furent courtes. Il lut nos firmans, les lettres que nous avions pour le nouveau pacha, en cas qu'il fut deja arrive, et nous pormit une escorte. Il ajouta qu'il nous ferait avertir du lieu du rendez-vous. Ce village a un mauvais couvent de moines grecs.

[We found the musselman and his court in the hamlet of Pirkinik, a league from Sivas. He was sleeping when we arrived. He had to wait in the street. The cottage, his asylum, was composed of a granary and a stable filled with those of his party, who held council. A quarter hour later we were introduced. We found him much depressed, and in a pitiable state. He was a handsome man of middle age, and who seemed very sweet. The ceremonies were brief. He read our firmans, the letters we had to new pasha, if he had already arrived, and he allowed us an escort. He added that we would alert the rendezvous place. This village had a poor convent of Greek monks.]"

Novuveau Voyage de Constantinople a Bassora, 1781 and 1801


Voyages en Orient, de l'annee 1821 a l'annee 1829 Constantinople, Grece By Victor Fontanier

"Sivas est peuple de quarante mille habitans, en comptant huit mille maisons portees sur les registes; sur ce nombre, il y a environ trois mille. Ameniens.

"Les catholiques habitent dans un village nomme Perkinik, et situe a une lieue de distance. Il y a un couvent qui sert de residence a trois moines envoyes par le patriarche du mont Liban. Ces catholiques s'occupent d'agriculture, et sont en general assez miserables. Les Armeniens font le commerce de la noix de galle que l'on tire de Mossul, du tabac de Malathia, et surtout de cuivre provenant de mines situees a six lieues, dans les montagnes de Sud. J'ai ve des eschantillons de ce cuivre, c'etait du cuivre pyriteux et du corbonate bleu. Il parait que les mines d'ou on l'extrait doivent etre abondantes, d'apres la quantite qui entra dans le commerce. C'etait autrefois a Tocate qu'on le transportait, et cette ville avait acquis une grande reputation pour la maniere de la travailler. Depuis que les communications sont devenues plus faciles, on l'envoie a Cahissarie de la a Tarsous, et il na'a pas peu cantribue a la prosperite nouvelle de ce dernier pays. J'ai reconnu aussi que les Armeniaens achetaient a Sivas une grande qualite de medailles, et je croirais assez que les orfevres du pays occupent a en fabriquer; j'en ai achete plusieus.

[Sivas has forty thousand inhabitants, counting eight thousand houses listed on the registers; of these, there are about three thousand Ameniens.

Catholics live in a village called Perkinik, located a mile away. There is a monastery that serves as a residence for three monks sent by the Patriarch of Mount Lebanon. These Catholics are engaged in agriculture, and usually are quite miserable. The Armenians are traders "la noix de galle" that are derived from Mosul, tobacco from Malathia, and especially copper from mines located six miles in the mountains to the South. I've "eschantillons" of this copper, and copper pyrite and corbonate blue. It appears that the mines must be abundant, based on the quantity that enters the trade. It was formerly transported to Tocat, and this city had gained a great reputation for the "way of working". Since communication has become easier, it sends an envoy to Cahissarie and from there to Tarsus, and this accounts "not a little" to the new prosperity of that country. I also recognized that the Armenians of Sivas have a great quality of medals, and I believe that the goldsmiths of the area are busy manufacturing; I bought "plusieus"."]


This book uses old German print so I can only get the phrase that comes with the Google Book preview. My ability to read German is very poor and my ability to read old German print is nonexistent.

Die Katholiken wohnen in einem etwa eine Stunde entfernten Dorf genannt Perkinik. Dort ist ein Kloster fur trei ...

[The Catholics live in a remote village about an hour called Perkinik. There is a monastery for trei ....]

Das Ausland: Wochenschrift fur Lander- u. Volkerkunde, Volume 1; Volume 3, 1830

I think this is pretty much the same as in the French Voyages en Orioent of 1821


En quittant Siwas, le 6 juillet, je pris la direction du nord-est, pour gagner Erzeroum. Dès qu'on a dépassé le village de Perknik, distant d'une lieue, qui présente le phénomène remarquable d'une population exclusivement catholique au milieu d'une nation encore dissidente, on reconnait que là finissent les limites de la Cappadoce, et qu'une contrée nouvelle commence. C'est la petite Arménie qui, de ce coté, est comprise entre le Kizil-Irmak et l'Euphrate. Des villages entiers sont arméniens sans qu'il s'y trouve de Turcs. Les femmes et les enfants ne parlent ni n'entendent la langue de leurs dominateurs. Le sol, nu comme le désert, est coupé par des chaines de collines ou de hautes montagnes blanchies par les neiges, qui se croisent et courent dans toutes les directions, présentant sur leurs flancs d'épais herbages, où s'engraissent ces beaux troupeaux de moutons qui servent à l'approvisionnement de Constantinople, et qui font la richesse principale du pays. A leurs pieds s'étendent des vallées, qui sont plutot des plaines, et où le froment, l'orge et le seigle croissent avec une abondance égale, mais à des époques bien différentes, suivant que le terrain est plus ou moins élevé. De toutes parts s 'échappent du sein des rochers et des entrailles de la terre des sources, d'une eau si fraiche, si limpide et d'un gout si délicieux, que véritablement elle fait perdre le souvenir et le regret des boissons européennes. Un grand nombre d'eaux chaudes, de toutes les températures et de toutes les qualités, révegrave;lent un autre genre de richesses que la terre recèle et garde inutilement enfouies, à cause de l'ignorance ou de l'apathie de ceux qui la possèdent. L'année se divise en deux saisons : l'hiver, dont le règne est généralement de huit mois, et l'été, qui vient, avec ses chaleurs souvent extre mes, faire naitre, pousser et jaunir les moissons. L'aspect monotone du pays, où nul ombrage ne repose jamais la vue, inspire un sentiment de mélancolie indéfinissable; et l'on est peu tenté d'envier le sort de ses habitants, dont les villes et les bourgades, cachées sous terre, se confondent de loin avec l'apre nudité du sol.

[Leaving Sivas, July 6, I headed northeast toward Erzurum. Once we passed the village of Perknik, distant a league, which has the remarkable phenomenon of an exclusively Catholic population in the midst of a dissenting nation, we realize that there are eventually limits to Cappadocia, and that a new country begins.

It is little Armenia, this side is between the Kizil Irmak and the Euphrates. Villages are entirely Armenians with no Turks. Women and children do not speak nor hear the language of their rulers. The landscape, naked as the desert, is broken by ranges of hills or mountains white with snow, which intersect and run in all directions, presenting their sides of thick grassland where herders fatten beautiful sheep used to supply Constantinople, which are the main wealth of the country. At their feet the valleys, which are rather plain, where wheat, barley and rye grow with equal abundance, but at times quite different, depending on whether the land is higher or lower. Escaping from all parts of the rocks and within the bowels of the earth water sources so fresh, so clear and tasting so delicious that one forgets the memories and longing for European drinks. Numerous warm waters, of all temperatures and all the qualities, reveal another kind of wealth that the earth holds buried because of the ignorance or apathy of those who possess it. The year is divided into two seasons: winter, whose reign is generally eight months, and summer, with its often extreme heat, to be born, to grow and to yellow harvest. The monotony of the country, where shadowing is not ever seen, inspires a feeling of indefinable melancholy, and there is little temptation to envy the fate of its inhabitants, including the towns and villages, hidden under earth, merge with the harsh nudity of the landscape.]

Correspondance et mémoires d'un voyageur en Orient, Volume 1 By Eugène Boré


Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, 1842

"In Pirkinik evvi usa chiesa pubblica cattolica, e compresa anche Sivas, vi sono circa settanta od ottanta famiglie assistite da tre, o quattro sacerdoti del patriarca di Cilicia."

page 138

[in Pirkinik (evvi) a public catholic church, which also includes Sivas, there are about 70 or 80 families "assisted" by three or four priests from the patriarch of Cilicia.]


The Missionary Herald, Volume 41, 1845, By American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions

Armenian Catholics

Mr. Johnston has communicated the following facts.

I have but little authentic information to communicate respecting this sect among the Armenians. They are said to number one thousand houses at Artoin, one hundred at Erzeroom, one hundred at Trebizond, four hundred at Tokat, fifteen at Sivas, three hundred and fifty at Pirkinik, - a village near to Sivas, - two hundred at Gurin; and at Angora, which is their strong hold in Asia Minor, they are very numerous, though I know not the exact number, perhaps about two thousand bouses. Nor have I any definite information respecting the origin and growth of this sect, except that in Tokat they have increased from about one hundred and fifty to near four hundred houses, since their recognition as a distinct sect by the Turkish government At Trebizond it seems they have not increased, or at least have made no proselytes from the Armenians, since their formal separation. The increase at Tokat seems to have been brought about, partly by the zeal of educated native preachers, and partly by their attention to the poor and relief extended to individuals in times of need. But as a body they have lost their former zeal, have become relaxed in their morals, and, consequently, have ceased to make proselytes as they formerly did."


"A few moments afterward an old man, with a bald head, a long white beard, and a severe countenance, entered. He trembled violently at the sight of the pacha, as if he though his hour had come.

He was a poor Maronite monk, sent recently by the patriarch of Mount Libanus to replace the superior of the convent of Perkinik, who was dead. The pacha had, whilst passing on that day thought this Catholic village, in the environs of Sivas, wished to make an exaction on this miserable convent, in which a few monks, covered with rags, lived by the labor of their hands, in the midst of a population as miserable as themselves. Djezzar, unable to extort the money which they had not, had carried off their superior with him, to detain him as a hostage until the sum demanded was paid."

The monk replies:
"I have nothing in the world which thou canst take from me, but my life."
At which point the pasha shoots him.

Graham's American monthly magazine of literature, art, and fashion, Volume 37, 1850

Note: Djezzar was the name of the pacha in this story.


"Non vi sono in Sebaste, oggidi Sewas, che alcune case cattoliche. Bisogna far una lega per trovar le altre. Il villaggio di Perknick, composto di centosessanta case, presenta il singolar fenomeno di non racchiudere che cattolici in mezzo ad un paese infedele o scismatico. L'epoca della sua conversione alla vera fede risale al principio dell' ultimo secolo, allora che si suscitavano a Tokat e ad Angora violenti persecuzioni contra gli ortodossi, e che il beato Gumida moriva martire a Costantinopoli. Un cattolico armeno, chiamato Michele, venne a stanziare in questo villaggio. La sua vita regolare e piena di buone opere gli guadagnò la stima e la confidenza degli abitanti. Siccome era istruito e dotto, egli profittò di questo vantaggio per dirigere l'educazione de' fanciulli, ai quali insinuò a poco a poco i principii dell' ortodossia. Sendo morto il coadjutore della chiesa, si gettarono incontanente gli occhi sopra di lui per surrogarlo. Michele, che credeva di dover adempiere la missione di cui il Signore lo incaricava visibilmente, accettò questa dignità, e in breve guadagnò alla Chiesa tutto il gregge. Perknick divenne apertamente cattolico.

We are in Sebaste, today Sewas, where there are some catholic homes. You have to go about a league away to find others. The village of Perknick comprising one hundred and sixty houses, is a unique phenomenon of not containing anything but catholics in the midst of a county which is either infidel or schismatic. The time of conversion to the true faith dates to the the beginning of the last century when there arose a violent persecution in Tokat and Angora against the Orthodoxes and when the blessed Gumid died a martyr in Constantinople. An Armenian catholic called Michael came to live in this village. His ordered live and his good works earned him the respect and confidence of the inhabitants. Since he was educated and literate he took this advantage to direct the education of the children to whom he slowly slowly insinuates the principles of orthodoxy (presumably the Roman Catholic Orthodoxy). When the the priest of the church died, their eyes unanimously were cast on him (Michael) to replace him (the priest). Michael who believed he had to fulfill the mission which the Lord had visibly instructed him to do accepted with dignity and soon gained the whole flock for the church. Perknick was openly Catholic.

In que' giorni era nella nazione armena un movimento generale di conversione, e questo fu il motivo delle persecuzioni di cui abbiamo parlato. I capi del clero armeno di Sebaste, spaventati del glorioso conquisto di Michele, lo denunziarono caritatevolmente al muftì o capo della religione musulmana ed al pascià, accusandolo d'infedeltà verso il gran signore e di trama coi Franchi nemici della Porta. Queste accuse ingiuste furono ascoltate, e Michele fu citato in giudizio e poi messo a morie sulla porta della chiesa di Sebaste, posta sotto la protezione della Vergine Maria. Le ultime esortazioni falle al suo gregge e l'olocausto del suo sangue, prezioso davanti il Signore, hanno sparso sopra Perknick una benedizione efficace. Noi abbiam trovalo questo villaggio irremovibile nella sua fede. Esso è molto bene diretto da tre giovani preti usciti, dal monte Libano e assai istruiti. Noi gli abbiiam trovati che presedevano alla costruzione di una chiesa che sopravanzerà per solidità e gusto quella degli Armeni. Essi hanno fatto di questo villaggio come una piccola città cristiana, le cui eccellenti leggi hanno impresso agli abitanti tal carattere di probità che li fa distinti sino a Costantinopoli.

In those days there was in the Armenian nation a general movement towards conversion and this was the motive for the persecution we have mentioned. The leaders of the Armenian clergy of Sebaste worried by Michael's glorious conquest "caritatevolmente" charitably?? denounced him to the mufti or Muslim regional leader and the pasha and accused him of infidelity against the Lord and plotting with the French enemies of the Sublime Porte. These unjust accusations were listened to and Michael stood trail and executed at the door of the church in Sebaste, under the protection of the Virgin Mary. The last pleas made by his flock and the burnt offering of his blood, precious to the Lord, have placed a blessing on Perknick. We find this village immovable in its faith. It is very well directed by three young priests who came from Mount Lebanon and are highly educated. We fount them presiding over the construction of a Church which is unsurpassed for sturdiness and Armenian aesthetics. They have made this village into a small Christian city, whose excellent laws have imprinted the inhabitants with an honest character that one only finds in Constantinople.

Secondo antiche congetture storiche, essi discenderebbero tutti dalla famiglia de' Pagratidi, razza reale che gli ha diverse volte governati. Nondimeno non hanno l'orgoglio aristocratico, che sembrerebbe almen tollerabile fra loro. Noi abbiam trovato il fratello dell'arcivescovo che faceva egli stesso pascolare gl'innumerevoli greggi che formano l'unica loro ricchezza. Tutti sono allevati nel rispetto e nella più umile sommissione per la santa sede, segno caratteristico del vero cattolico. Non dimenticherò mai, soggiunge il dotto viaggiatore, l'impressione che mi fece una vecchia di oltre cent'anni, attorniata da quattro generazioni. Quando monsignor Scafi, missionario della congregazione de'lazaristi, che risiede a Costantinopoli e mio onorevole compagno di viaggio, si fece a lei conoscere qual prete romano allevato a Roma, la vecchia, udendo il suo nome veneralo fra loro, levò gli occhi e le braccia al cielo, benedicendolo di aver veduto prima di morire un inviato del sommo pontefice.

"According to ancient historical conjecture they all descend from the Pagratidi family, a real people who have ruled several times. In any event, they do have an aristocratic pride that seems tolerated among themselves. We found the brother of the Archbishop who was himself grazing innumerable flocks that are their only form of wealth. All are raised in respect and humble submission to the Holy See, a characteristic sign of a true Catholic. I will never forget, added the learned traveler, the impression made on me by a an old lady of over one hundred years surrounded by four generations. When Monsignor Scafi, a missionary from the Lazzarist congregation who lives in Constantinople and my honorable travel companion, when it became known to her that he was Roman priest raised in Rome the old woman, hearing his name venerated among them raised her eyes and arms to heaven and blessing him for having seen before her death an emissary from the Supreme Pontiff.

Storia universale della Chiesa cattolica dal principio del ..., Volumes 27-28 By René François Rohrbacher 1855


"A une heure de Sebaste, se trouve le village de Pir- kinik, habitent exclusivement par des Arme niens catholiques, au nombre de 3000 environ. Ils ont une assez vaste eglise en pierre et une residence pour le cure et ses deux vicaires"

[One hour from Sebaste, lies the village of Pir-Kinik, inhabited exclusively by Armenian Catholics, numbering about 3,000. They have a fairly large stone church and a residence for the priest and his two vicars."]


A une heure de Sébaste, se trouve le village de Pirkinik, habité exclusivement par des Arméniens catholiques, au nombre de 3,000 environ. Ils ont une assez vaste église en pierre et une résidence pour le curé et ses deux vicaires. Mgr Khadifian a été reçu avec allégresse par ses ouailles de Pirkinik, où il passe ordinairement l'été et l'automne. La population de ce village est trés-pieuse et trés-attachée au Saint-Siége. Elle assiste chaque matin à la messe et le soir aux vêpres. L'école, soutenue par une confrérie qui vient d'être fonde, est fréquentée par 200 éléves. Pirkinik a beaucoup souffert de la guerre. Les habitants sont cultivateurs ou muletiers. Ceux-ci, renommés pour leur fidélité, traversent toute l'Anatolie. On peut leur confier, en pleine sécurité, toutes sortes de valeurs; les voyageurs, et surtout les missionnaires catholiques, aiment à voyager avec eux. Pendant la derniére guerre, les commandants des armées turques d'Asie ont réquisitionné leurs mules, et Pirkinik a été ainsi grandement appauvri. Il est entouré d'un grand nombre de villages habités par des Arméniens non unis, mais fort doux de caractére. Quand Mgr Khadifian traversait ces villages, tous les habitants allaient à sa rencontre et lui oiTraient la table et le logement. Si l'école de Pirkinik pouvait prendre un plus grand développement, et si une école poulies jeunes filles y était établie, peu agrave; peu la foi catholique renaitrait dans ces villages, et Pirkinik deviendrait, je crois, chez les Arméniens grégoriens, le centre d'un grand mouvement d'union avec l'église romaine. Les prédicants prolestants, forts de leurs ressources pécuniaires, ont déjagrave; pris pied dans cette province, et ils cherchent à gagner é l'hérésie les Arméniens non unis.

["One hour from Sivas, lies the village of Pirkinik, inhabited exclusively by Armenian Catholics, numbering about 3,000. They have a fairly large stone church and a residence for the priest and his two vicars. Bishop Khadifian is received with joy by his Pirkinik flock, where he usually spends the summer and fall. The population of this village is very pious and very attached to the Holy See. They attend Mass every morning and vespers in the evening. The school, supported by a brotherhood that has just been founded, is attended by 200 students. Pirkinik has suffered greatly from the war. The inhabitants are farmers or muleteers. These, renowned for their honesty, traverse the whole of Anatolia. We can give them, with complete safety, all sorts of valuables: travelers, especially the Catholic missionaries, like to travel with them. During the last war, the commanders of the Asian Turkish army commandeered their mules, and thus Pirkinik was greatly impoverished. It is surrounded by a large number of peaceful un-united Armenian villages. When Bishop Khadifian passes through these villages, all the people go to meet him and offer board and lodging. If the school at Pirkinik were enlarged, and if a school for young girls was established it would gradually revive the Catholic faith in these villages, and Pirkinik would become, I believe, home of the Armenian Gregorian, the center a great movement for unity with the Roman Church. The Protestant preachers, with strong financial resources, have already gained a foothold in the province, and they seek to convert if the Armenians do not unite.]

Aprés trois jours de séjour à Pirkinik, Mgr Khadifian s'est acheminé vers Gurine, ville en partie habitée par des Arméniens catholiques. Il était accompagné de M. l'abbé André Alexandrian, un des secrétaires de S. B. Mgr Hassoun, qui se rendait en congé agrave; Gurine, son pays natal, pour y voir ses parents aprés plusieurs années d'absence. Les habitants de Pirkinik ont accompagné leur pasteur, pendant deux heures de marche, jusqu'à la montagne Kardachicar, prés d'une fontaine célébre. Lagrave;, Mgr Khadifian leur adressa une touchante allocution, et, aprés les avoir bénis et avoir appelé sur eux les bienfaits du Ciel, il prit congé, au milieu de leurs larmes. Ces bons Arméniens ne quittérent le sommet de la montagne que lors qu'ils eurent perdu de vue leur évoque. Le trajet de Pirkinik à Gurine fut plein de tristesse. En traversant ces vallées semées de villages musulmans ou schismatiques, Mgr Khadifian se sentait le coeur' navré. Dans ce vaste district, illustré autrefois par tant d'évêques, pas un seul catholique.

[After a three days stay at Pirkinik Bishop Khadifian headed toward Gurine, a village partly inhabited by Armenians Catholics. He was accompanied by Abbe Andre Alexandrian, one of the secretaries of S. B. Bishop Hassoun, who was on leave to visit his homeland of Gurine and to see his parents after years of absence. The inhabitants of Pirkinik accompanied their pastor for two hours walking up the mountain Kardachicar, near a famous fountain. There, Bishop Khadifian gave a touching speech, and after having blessed them and called upon them the blessings of heaven, he took leave in the middle of their tears. These good Armenians left the summit of the mountain until they had lost sight of their bishop. The way from Pirkinik to Gurine was full of sadness. Crossing these valleys dotted with Muslim or "schismatiques"* villages Bishop Khadifian felt sad of heart. In this vast district, from which so many bishops had come, not one Catholic.**]

Les Missions Catholiques: Volume 11 - Page 63 By Society for the Propagation of the Faith, Catholic Church. Pontificium Opus

*I am not sure of the interpretation of the word "schismatiques". I could refer to Protestants and/or Apostolics.

**Literally "In this vast district, formerly illustrated by so many bishops, not one Catholic."

Bishop Gabriel Khadifian was the Armenian Roman Catholic bishop of Sivas and Tokat. He was consecrated in Pera, Constantinople in 1877 in the presence of delegates from the Holy See in Rome. He made his first official visit to his dioceses in 1879. The above description of Pikrinik was made at that time.

To see images of the Armenian muleteers go to Armenians in Turkey, Customs, Dress and Food



In an Armenian book of Travels belonging to the priest of Pilkinik1 near Sivas, I saw the following inscriptions along with several others, all equally badly copied and hopeless, from Geumenek near Tokat. I give two of these inscriptions, which contain the name of the town.

The inscription is dated in the year one hundred and three. On the analogy of the local eras used in various parts of Asia Minor in the Imperial period, there can be no doubt that this era is that either of the formation of the country into a Roman province or of the assumption by the town of the name HieroCaesareia This name for the city is common on the coins, which show that the era dates from A.D. 37, when Caligula gave to Polemon the kingdom of Pontus, which had belonged to his father Polemon. In the year 140 A.D., which corresponds to the year 103 of the inscription, the consuls were the emperor Atonius Pius and Verus Caesar, afterwards the emperor M. Aurelius. It is probable that this inscription is in honour of the two consuls, and it may be restored as follows, omitting the honorary pedigree and titles which were given with the emperors name.

The names Crispinus also occurs at Sebastian (No. 12). The general drift of the inscription is clear, but it is difficult to connect the separate fragments, some of which need considerable emendation; and the later part is very uncertain."

The Journal of philology, Volumes 11-12 By William George Clark, Ingram Bywater, John Eyton Bickersteth Mayor


Les Missions Catholiques, Volume 16 By Society for the Propagation of the Faith, Catholic Church. Pontificium Opus a S. Petro, 1884

"Je fus retenu a Sivas au-dela de mes previsions, parce qu'on avait prepare une grand'messe de Dumont et un examen public. Comment se refuse a preside une telle solennite? Je profitai de cette prolongation de sejour pour visiter le village de Perkenik. C'est une oasis exclusivement catholique, chose rare et Presque unique dans ces contrees schismatiques. La population est rude, mais ferme dans sa foi. Plusieurs pretres et eveques, le patriarche lui-meme sortent de Perkenik. Les homes sont muletiers et sillonnent l'Asie Mineure dans tous les sens. Leur eglise es grande et tien tenue. Un pretre y dirige l'ecole avec success. Il a bonte de m'accueillir de la maniere la plus cordiale. C'est ici que l'on peut juger du resultat que nois obtiendrions pour la glorie de Dieu, si nous parvenions a former des groupes catholiques puissant.

Independants et libres, sans melange d'infideles, les rudes habitants de Perkenik sont fiers de lour village. Il faut ententre avec quell accent d'un doux orgueil ils repondent: "Je suis de Perkenik", -orsqu'on les aborde sur les grands chemins. Je suis de Perkenik, c'est-a-dire je suis catholique et je voudrais bien voir que quelqu'un fut assez ose pour y trouver a redire. Comme la situation changeait en Armenie avec des colonies semblables a celle-ci!

Ce village fut a l'aise jadis. Il s'appauvrit chaque jour. Les prestations et les corvees entravent la travail lire et remunerateur. Tel pere de famille est tenu a une corvee de vingt jours por la construction d'un dedfice public ou le soin des routes. Celui qui a des mulets et des voitures se voit force de les mettre a la disposition de entrepreneur. Cependant il faut vivre durant ces jour, vivre et faire vivre sa famille! Et puis les redevances en nature sont ecrasantes. Le vilayet de Sivas est un des cinq auxquels imcombe l'obligation d'amortir la dette russe imposee par la derniere guerre. On croit qu'il faudre cent ans pour se liberer."

[I was unexpectedly detained in Sivas, because we had to prepare a grand mass "of Dumont" and a public exam (or review). How can one refuse to preside at "une telle solennite"? I took advantage of this extended stay to visit the village of Perkenik. It is an exclusively Catholic oasis, very rare and almost unique in these schismatic countries. The people are crude, but firm in their faith. Several priests and bishops, the Patriarch himself, are from Perkenik. Men are muleteers and traverse Asia Minor in all directions. Their church is large and well maintained. A priest leads the school with success. He met me in the most cordial manner. Here we can see what results are obtained for the glorie of God, if we form powerful Catholic groups.

Independent and free, without mixture of infidels, the peasant inhabitants of Perkenik are proud of their village. With a sweet accent of pride they say: "I am Perkenik." (word) as you approach them on the highways, I'am Perkenik, that is to say I am Catholic and I would like to see someone find fault with that. The situation changed in Armenia with colonies similar to that one!

This village was once comfortable. It gets poorer every day. The "benefits" and chores outweigh the work and reward. For example a father of a family is given twenty days work building an edifice or working on the public roads. Whoever has mule and carts was forced to make them available the contractor. But he must live during the days (that his mules were not available to him), live and provide for his family! And then the royalties in kind are overwhelming. The vilayet Sivas is one of five whose income is required to reduce the Russian debt imposed by the last war. It is believed to be a hundred years to be out from under it.

1888 — The Conversion of Perkinik to Catholicism — Early 1700s

No exact date is given for the episode described. However, the precious paragraph refers to 1711 and 1713.

Coup d'oeil sur l'Armenie: a propos d'une mission de la Compagnie de Jesus By Damas (Andre, le r.p. de, 1888

"Un autre Jesuite, le P. Gregoire, polonais, expulse d'Erivan, s'etait au village de Perkenik, pres de Sivas. Les familles catholiques y etaient peu nombreuses. Le Pere s'ingenia de son mieux. Il associa a son apostolat un armenien catholique appartenant aux Freres-unis. Ce jeune homme ouvrit une ecole, espousa la fille du cure schismatique, convertit son beau-pere, et l'amena a faire son abjuration etre les mains du Jesuite polonais. La conversion du pasteur entraina celle du troupeau. Aujourd'hui, le village n'abrite pas un seul armenien schismatique. Il est ferme dans la loi catholique, c'est un de nos centres importants."

page 178

[Another Jesuit, Father Gregoire, Polish, expelled from Erivan, took refuge in Perkenik village, near Sivas. The Catholic families were few. The Priest tried his best. This work of the Armenian Catholics was associated with the mission of "Freres-Unis". This young man opened a school, married the daughter of "cure of the schismatic" (pastor of the non Catholic church), converted his father-in-law, his wife, and solemnly renounced himself of the Polish Jesuits. The conversion of Pastor (the father-in-law MLB) lead the rest of the congregation (the herd). Today the village has no "schismatic Armenians" (Armenian Apostolics MLB). It is firmly in Catholic law and is one of our major centers.]

Sivas in 1892 - La Turquie d'Asie: geographie administrative, statistique ..., Volume 1 By Vital Cuinet
A little closer to the city, we see the village of Pirkinik whose population is estimated at 1,300 inhabitants, all Armenian Catholics. It is said to have been founded by a family member of Pakradouni (Bagratids) who gave several kings to Armenia. Most men in this village were muleteers, but since the completion of roadways in the province, most transportation was done by arabas, this job is no longer as profitable as before. Also the population, already reduced by almost half, declines even more as a result of male emigration to Constantinople, where they will go into service. Already the number of deaths exceeds that of births which drop alarmingly. Pirkinik women are known for their athletic form. At some distance from this village there are iron springs well attended by families of Sivas, who move there to live in tents during June and July.


Le célébre Méchitar, fondateur des moines arméniens, appelés du nom de leur fondateur Méchitaristes, était également originaire de Sébaste ; c'est grace agrave; lui que la littérature arménienne fut conservée et devint si florissante. Le martyr Michel, décapité pour la foi en 1707 dans la ville de Sébaste, était de Berkenik. Au xvni siecle, les persécutions des patriarches dissidents de Constantinople diminuerent le nombre des catholiques; quelques familles, pour éhapper à l'emprisonnement, cederent à l'erreur; plusieurs autres émigrèrent à Constantinopleet à Smyrne. Les fidèles qui restent encore sont à Berkenik, à Sébaste, à Tokat et à Guirine; leur nombre est de six mille, -andis que les Arméniens non unis sontau nombre de deux cent mille. Un tel désastre avait réduit Sébaste au rang d'évêché. Mais, le 30 mai 1892, S. S. Léon XIII, par une lettre apostolique, daigna l'ériger à nouveau en siège archiépiscopal, conférant à l'évè que le titre d'archevêque de Sébaste et d'évêque de Tokat. Actuellement, cette province de Sébaste a quatre églises, cinq chapelles et un monastère qui se trouve pregrave;s de Tokat, treize prêtres et cinq écoles. Le village de Berkenik, composé de cinq cents familles, toutes catholiques, n'a pas d'école. Près de cent soixante-dix garçons et plus de deux cents jeunes filles reçoivent l'instruction dans de pauvres maisons : bancs, livres, tout manque à ces classes.

The celebrated Mechitar, founder of the Armenian monastery called Mechitarists was also from Sivas, it was through him that the Armenian literature was preserved and became so successful. The martyr Michael, beheaded for the faith in 1707 in the city of Sebaste, was from "Berkenik". In the eighteenth century, the persecution of the dissident patriarchs of Constantinople diminished the number of Catholics: a few families, to escape imprisonment, yielded to the "error" [conversion] and several others moved to Constantinople or Smyrna. The faithful who are still in "Berkenik", Sivas, Tokat and Guirine; their number is six thousand, the un-united Armenians number two hundred thousand. A similar disaster reduced Sivas to the rank of bishopric. On May 30, 1892, S. S. Leo XIII by apostolic letter deigned to erect it again in the archbishopric, giving the bishop the title of archbishop and bishop of Sebaste in Tokat. Currently, the province of Sebaste has four churches, five chapels, a monastery located near Tokat, thirteen priests and five schools. "Berkenik" village, consisting of five hundred families, all Catholics, no school. Nearly one hundred and seventy boys and more than two hundred young girls receive instruction in their poor homes: desks, books, are all lacking in these classes.

Les Missions catholiques, Volume 25 By Society for the Propagation of the Faith, Catholic Church.

Mechitar (1676-1749) See Mechitar


About 1 hr. from the town is the Armenian Monastery of the Holy Cross, in which are kept Senekherim's throne, and other relics of the Armenian Viceroys. On the height to the E., separated from the town by Pirkinik Su, and commanding a fine view, is the Mosque of Abd elWahab, built on old foundations, and still called by Christians the Church of S. John."

Handbook for travellers in Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Persia, etc By John Murray (Firm), 1895

1898 —

Les Missions catholiques, Volume 30 By Society for the Propagation of the Faith, Catholic Church. Pontificium Opus a S. Petro Apostolo

A Pirkinik, l'eglise est in ruine; la terrasse menace de s'effondrer. L'interieur de l'edifice sacre est dans un etat amentable; l'humidite a deja deteriore tous les tableaux. Ce village, compose de 400 familles, toutes catholigues, n'a pas encore pour les garcons une ecole tant soit peu convenable. Les pauvres enfants sont obligue de se reunir dans une chamber etroite, obscure, sans pave, malsaine; c'est pourquoi la frequentation d'un tel local devient odieuse aux enfants, et il est tres difficile de trouver un professeur qui consent a y passer quelques heures."

[At Pirkinik, the church is in ruins, the terrace is threatening to collapse. Inside the sacred edifice is an "amentable" state. The moisture has already deteriorated all the "tableaux" (frescos?). The village comprises 400 families, all catholics, the boys school is unsuitable. Poor children are obliged to meet in a narrow chamber, dark, without paving, unhealthy, so attendance at of the local child has becomes obnoxious, and it is very difficult to find a professor who agrees to spend a few hours.]

Massacres of Armenians in Anatolia occurred between 1894-1896. The area around Sivas was hit between November 12-15, 1895.


Sebaste ou Sivas, l'antique Diospolis, clebre pas les 40 martyrs de Sebaste. Sebasten, Armenorum (Asie Mineure). Rite armenian. Erige en ev. par Pie IX en 1858, puis en archev. Par Leon Xiii. le 30 mai 1892, avec le diocese uni de Tokat (Tokaten). Hab. 1,050,000: cath. armen.*, 3,000; schism.**, 237,000: prot., 2,000; juifs***, 400; 12 pr. miss., 4 egl. on chap.

HAGIAN (Isaac), ne a Perkinik, dioc. de Sebaste, le 6 mai 1837, elu le 8 avril 1892. archev. le 30 mai 1893

[Sebaste or Sivas, the ancient Diopolis, know for the 40 martyrs of Sebastia. (Asia Minor) Armenian rite......... Inhabitants 1,050,000, Armenian Catholic, 3,000, schism (presumably Apostolic) 237,000, protestants 2,000, jews 400......

HAGIAN (Isaac) born at Perkinik diocese of Sebastian 6 May 1837.......

Archeveques et Eveques Residentiels Annuaire pontifical catholique By Battandier, 1903


The Bastard of Istanbul, A Novel by Elif Shafak

"Even in Sivas, in the small Catholic Armenian village of Pirkinik when they went to seek shelter with Grandpa and Grandma, only to be expelled one night by soldiers breaking into the house; even when he found himself walking amid thousands of drained, famished, beaten Armenians guarded by soldiers on horseback, even when he trudged through a long, thick carpet of mud, vomit, blood, and excrement.........."

page 239 and 240


Danish documents on the Armenian Genocide: The minister in Constantinople (Carl Ellis Wandel) to the foreign minister (Erik Scavenius) Source : Danish National Archives, Foreign Office, Group Cases 1909-1945. Dept. 139, Gr. D, No. 1, "Turkey - Inner Relations". Package 1, to Dec. 31, 1916 No. CXIII [113] Constantinople, September 4,

"In the parish of Sivas, the only village to have been spared is Pirkinik, where the archbishop, Monseigneur Ketchedjian, has escaped to. He, and one cleric that accompanied him, are the only survivors."


"The favour that had been obtained through the Austrian and American Embassies in Constantinople for Catholics and Protestants to be exempted from deportation, is in some cases being faithfully observed, but in others not at all. I was in Sivas when the rich village of Perkenik was entirely and most ruthlessly deported. It was an entirely Catholic village of perhaps one thousand homes. They had beautiful horses and great flocks of sheep. The flocks and horses were sent into the city, and the people were literally driven out with whips. When a complaint was made to the officers that this should not be done, because they were Catholics and had been especially faithful to the Government at all times, the reply was given that politics had changed, and that Italy had entered the war since this order had come from Constantinople."

In July 2018 Therese Eminian Schoen wrote that she was told by her aunt Victoria:

"After the final harvest (the Turks waited until the Armenians had done the work before rounding up the men and boys) and the eventual eviction of the population from the village, the Turks took the stones from the church, school and bathhouse to Sivas for building materials."

Papers by command, Volume 33 By Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons - ANGORA: STATEMENT BY A TRAVELLER, NOT OF ARMENIAN NATIONALITY, WHO PASSED THROUGH ANGORA IN AUGUST 1915

"The favour that had been obtained through the Austrian and American Embassies in Constantinople for Catholics and Protestants to be exempted from deportation, is in some cases being faithfully observed, but in others not at all. I was in Sivas when the rich village of Perkenik was entirely and most ruthlessly deported. It was an entirely Catholic village of perhaps one thousand homes. They had beautiful horses and great flocks of sheep. The flocks and horses were sent into the city, and the people were literally driven out with whips. When a complaint was made to the officers that this should not be done, because they were Catholics and had been especially faithful to the Government at all times, the reply was given that politics had changed, and that Italy had entered the war since this order had come from Constantinople."

Snippet view

"In Sebaste, come anche nelle sue adiacenze compreso Perknik, e Gurin si contano seicento anime cattoliche in circa. In Perknik vi sono due sacerdoti cattolici, ultimamente pero, il Padre Antonio monaco di Monte Libano, spedi dal detto...

[In Sebaste, as well as in its vicinity including Perknik, Gurin, and there are about six hundred Catholic souls. In Perknik there are two Catholic priests, but recently, Fr Anthony Monaco of Mount Lebanon, sent by that...]

Il vicariato apostolico di Costantinopoli 1453-1830: documenti, ..... Issues 103-104, Bohumil Spacil, Georg Hofmann, Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum - 1935 - 336 pages

This information must be from before 1915, but I do not know the date.


There are a number of books online in Turkish, which, unfortunately, I cannot read. There are also a number of books that require payment to read online or to buy.

Pirkinik - the Population and the School as Mentioned Over Time

In 1842 it was estimated that there were 70 or 80 families in the village. In 1845 it was estimated that there were 350 persons.

In 1855 it was stated that here were 160 homes.

In 1865 and 1879 the population was estimated at 3,000. If this was true the population increase by 2,650 people (more than 8.5 time) in 20 years. This is highly unlikely!!

The school was mentioned in 1865, 1879 and 1884.

In 1893 the school was in bad shape and the students were forced to learn in "poor homes".

By 1898 there were reportedly 400 families, the church was in ruins and the school was "unsuitable".

In 1915 there were an estimated 1,000 homes.

Today the village has 200 buildings at most. To see images of the boys school and the village go to The History of the Village of Perkinik


The Armenian review, Volume 3, page 77.

Perkenik was referred to as a "ruined Armenian village"


"With its roots in Istanbul, the Order soon spread its branches to the surrounding provinces. Subsequently, from 1847 to 1915, schools were opened in Garin, Bardizag, Bilejik, Marzevan, Trabizon, Malatia, Marash, Kharpert, Adana, Ardevin, Perknik, Hajin, Gurun and in Aleppo. By 1915, the number of schools reached thirty with some seventy-five Sisters teaching in these educational institutions."

The Order of the Armenian Sisters of The Immaculate Conception

Famous People list from the History of Perkenik by Father Ephrem Boghossian written in the 1950 or 60s and translated by Joe Topalian.

Bishop Hajian's List

  1. Der Hovhannes Margosian, died 1697.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  2. Der Michael, martyred in 1707.

    See Storia universale della Chiesa cattolica dal principio del ..., Volumes 27-28 By René François Rohrbacher 1855 above.

  3. Der Kaspar, jail mate of Martyr Der Michael, died in 1742-44.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spellingas of Jan 2011.

  4. Der Hagop Areviants, died in 1766.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  5. Der Kaspar Borchanian, died in 1766.
  6. Der Asdvadzadur, forefather of Der Asdvadzadooriants.

    Asdvadzadur of Armenia Catholicos

    Asdvadzadur was the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 1715 and 1725. As Catholicos, he secured an alliance with Christian Peter the Great of Russia for aid against the expansionist Muslim powers of the Ottoman Empire and Persia prior to the Russo-Persian War. He is buried at St. Hripsime Church, Echmiadzin.

    Wikipedia and more

    Fr. Hovhannes Der-Asdvadzadurian - Bitlis, Mush or Taron, Dzori Tagh village - Apostolic - martyr*

  7. Der Michael, grandson of the Martyr, died in 1782.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  8. Der Ghougas, grandson of the martyr, died in 1802

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  9. Der Hovhannes Demirjian

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  10. Der Asdvadzadur Der Asdvadzadurian (see above)

    Fr. Mikayel Der-Asdvadzadurian (vdpt.) - Sivas (Sebastia), Brgink - Apostolic - martyr - Born 1873 in Brgnik; studied in Zmmar; ordained 1896.*

  11. Der Krikor Krtian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  12. Der Arakel Ananian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  13. Der Hagop Gharibian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  14. Fr. Hovhannes Bedigian, Monk in Armenian Order of St. Anthony.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  15. Der Hovsep Markarian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  16. Der Boghos Krtian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  17. Der Bedros Danielian. See Chapter 18, History of the Village of Perkinik

  18. Der Parsegh Reissian, served in Vatican's Propaganda.

    ???Acta Apostolicae Sedis: commentarium officiale,Volume 54; Volume 1 - Page 887 Catholic Church. Pope, Vatican City - Law - 1962 Reissian ... (could not view on line)

  19. Fr. Pilibbos, Antonian monk.

    Not enough info

  20. Michele Derastrazadurian - Gregory Peter VIII Asdvadzadurian, Catholicos-Patriarch of the House of Cilicia.

    See Families above

    Born 1788 Pirkinik

    1855 (see above) "We found the brother of the Archbishop who was himself grazing innumerable flocks that are their only form of wealth."

    Gregory Petros VIII Der Asdvadzadourian patriarch 1843-1866.

    Armenian Catholic


    "A glorious name in the annals of Armenian nation"

    His patriarchate occurred during a period of religious freedom and he was able to build: 15 churches, many chapels, priest's housing, schools. He established a seminary, published booklets and enriched the convent library. With Gregory VIII the seat of the Armenian Catholic Patriarch moved from Lebanon to Constantinople.

    Gregory VIII died in 1866.

    Michele Derastrazadurian

    Diocese E Titoli Dei Patriarchi

    Cilicia degli Armenia, Ciliciae Armenorum: Michele Derastrazadurian, nato in Pirkinik, Archidiocese di Sebaste nel 1788, promosso da Cesarea In partibus 25 Gennario 1844 col nome di Gregorio Pietro VIII.

    Diocese of Patriarchs and Titles Cilicia of the Armenians, Michael Derastrazadurian born in Pirkinik Archdiocese of Sivas, in 1788 promoted from Caesarea 25 January 1844 under the name Peter Gregory VIIII

  21. Gregory Vartabed Bedigian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  22. Fr. Thomas Maksetian (born 1776), Mechitharist of Venice.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  23. Hovsep Vartabed Borchanian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  24. Hovhannes Vartabed Hajian (Hagian), Archbishop of Caesarea, (Cappadocia)

    His day = 1886, per note in Chapter 18, Distinguished Personalities of Perkenik

    Bishop Giovanni Hagian (AKA John Hajian) born Perkenik 1802, Bishop of Cesarea di Cappadocia

    The Churchman's year book, with calender for the year of grace 1871, by William Stevens Perry Caesarea, John Hagian.

    Bishop Giovanni Hagian born 1802, Perkenik, Ordained Bishop 2 June 1850 age 48.4, Bishop of Cesarea di Cappadocia, (Armenian) Turkey, First Vatican Council: Council Father

    Les Missions Catholiques, Volume 12 By Society for the Propagation of the Faith, Catholic Church. Pontificium Opus a S. Petro Apostolo


    Caesarea (Asia Mino). - We wrote to Constantinople, May 24, 1880: "Bishop John Hadjian, Armenian archbishop of Caesarea, died on 18th of this month, at three in the morning. Bishop Hadjian was born in 1802, in Armenia Minor, near Sivas (Sebaste), at Pirkinik. During the great persecution of 1827, when the Armenian Catholic Community of Constantinople was exiled and dispersed in the interior of Asia, Father Jean Hadjian, then a simple missionary, disguised as a cook, assisted the families deported to Caesarea. To avoid being recognized by the enforcement Turkish officers and the Gregorian patriarchy, he said Mass before dawn for one of the families in exile, then went to the bazaar for provisions of meat and worked in the kitchen the rest of the day. "God wanted what was a place of exile to became, in 1850, the archbishopric of this zealous priest. "When the Catholic Armenian nation had shaken off the yoke of patriarchy Gregorian, Father Hadjian returned to Kaysery, no longer dressed as a cook, but a missionary, preached freely and came to form a small community in this memorable city. The good example for the Armenian-Catholic families deported to Kaysery set by Bishop Hadjian had laid the first seed of faith in the Gregorian Church a germ that the zeal of the preacher and the bishop later developed. "
  25. Michael Vartabed Shegian.

    Nothing on the Internet with this spelling as of Jan 2011.

  26. Der Hovagim Der Boghossian.

  27. Der Krikor Der Asdvadzadurian.

  28. Der Asdvadzadur Der Asdvadzadurian.

  29. Ghevont Vartabed Khorkhoruni, Bishop of Malatia.

    "Melitene o [or] Malatia, r. Armeno, Melitenen. Armenorum. Arciv. - Armenia Minore -

    Leone Kurkoruni, n. in Perkinik, nel 1822, eonsagrato 7 ap. 1861

    Sedi Archivescovili e Vescovili Residenziali [Residential seats of archbishops and bishops]

    Annuario Ponticio 1865

    Archbishop Leone Korkoruni✟ Deceased Bishop of Melitene degli Armeni Events 20 Jun 1822 Born Perkinik 7 Apr 1861 38.8 Ordained Bishop Archbishop (Personal Title) of Melitene degli Armeni First Vatican Council: Council Father

    Annals of the propagation of the faith, Volume 60 By Society for the Propagation of the Faithm 1897



    Mgr. Korkorouni was born at Pirkinik, near Sivas, on the 20th of June 1822. He studied at the Patriarchal Seminary at Bzommar (Lebanon), where he was ordained Priest. On the 7th of April, 1861, he was raised to the dignity of Archbishop of Malatia. His death took place on the 15th of August.

  30. Der David Krtian.

  31. Der Bedros Balabanian. (See Mr. S Balabanian's list below)

  32. Sahag Vartabed Hajian, Archbishop of Sebastia.

    Archbishop Isacco Hagian, born 6 May 1837 Perkinik, appointed Bishop of Sebaste degli Armeni, 8 Apr 1892 age 54.9, appointed archbishop of Sebaste degi Armeni, 30 May 1893 age 56.1.

    HAGIAN (Isaac), ne a Perkinik, dioc. de Sebaste, le 6 mai 1837, elu le 8 avril 1892. archev. le 30 mai 1893

    Archeveques et Eveques Residentiels Annuaire Pontifical catholique By Battandier, 1903

  33. Der Dimoteos (Timothy) Baghdigian.

  34. Der Serope Kazanjian.

  35. Der Bedros Ayjian
*Losses of the Armenian Church During the Genocide

Mr. S. Balabanian's List

  1. Mardiros Vartabed Mgrian, from Aleppo, remained in our village for 30 years.

  2. Very Rev. Der Bedros Balabanian (my paternal uncle), Arajnort from 1890-1900.

  3. Sahag Vartabed Madoyan, Perkeniktsi, Arajnort 1900-1908.

  4. Very Rev. Michael Der Asdvadzadurian, Perkeniktsi, 1900-1908.

  5. Very Rev. Bedros Ayjian, 1902-1904, Armenian teacher.

  6. Hagop Eminents (Eminian).

  7. Serope Vartabed Kazanjian, Evdokatsi.

  8. Very Rev. Poladian.

  9. Nerses Vartabed Baghdigian, Perkeniktsi.

  10. Krikor Vartabed Pehlivanian, Sebastatsi, 1905-1915, teacher of religion.

  11. Shahnamian Vartabeds

  12. Very Rev. Ashikian
The Mechitharists (Mekhitarist)

"MECHITHARISTS, a congregation of Armenian monks in communion with the Church of Rome. The founder, Mechithar, was born at Sebaste in Armenia, 1676. He entered a monastery, but under the influence of Western missionaries he became possessed with the idea of propagating Western ideas and culture in Armenia, and of converting the Armenian Church from its monophysitism and uniting it to the Latin Church. Mechithar set out for Rome in 1695 to make his ecclesiastical studies there, but he was compelled by illness to abandon the journey and return to Armenia. In 1696 he was ordained priest and for four years worked among his people. In 1700 he went to Constantinople and began to gather disciples around him. Mechithar formally joined the Latin Church, and in 1701, with sixteen companions, he formed a definitely religious institute of which he became the superior. Their Uniat propaganda encountered the opposition of the Armenians and they were compelled to move to the Morea, at that time Venetian territory, and there built a monastery, 1706. On the outbreak of hostilities between the Turks and Venetians they migrated to Venice, and the island of St Lazzaro was bestowed on them, 1717. This has since been the headquarters of the congregation, and here Mechithar died in 1749, leaving his institute firmly established. The rule followed at first was that attributed to St Anthony; but when they settled in the West modifications from the Benedictine rule were introduced, and the Mechitharists are numbered among the lesser orders affiliated to the Benedictines. They have ever been faithful to their founder's programme. Their work has been fourfold: (i) they have brought out editions of important patristic works, some Armenian, others translated into Armenian from Greek and Syriac originals no longer extant; (2) they print and circulate Armenian literature among the Armenians, and thereby exercise a powerful educational influence; (3) they carry on schools both in Europe and Asia, in which Uniat Armenian boys receive a good secondary education; (4) they work as Uniat missioners in Armenia. The congregation is divided into two branches, the head houses being at St Lazzaro and Vienna. They have fifteen establishments in various places in Asia Minor and Europe. There are some 150 monks, all Armenians; they use the Armenian language and rite in the liturgy."

See Vita del servo di Dio Mechitar (Venice, 1901); E. Bore, Saint-Lazare (1835); Max Heimbucher, Orden is. Kongregationen (1907) I. 37; and the articles in Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchenlexicon (ed. 2) and Herzog, Realencyklopadie (ed. 3), also articles by Sargisean, a Mechitharist, in Rivista storica benedettina (1906), "La Congregazione Mechitarista." (E. C. B.)

The same on several internet sites.

See also Mekhitarist Fathers and Mekhitar.org


A Vartabed was a doctor of theology.


"The confiscation process was not clear and we do not have concrete data about the issue in the Sivas case; however, a letter, sent to Ministry of Interior by four Catholic Armenians from Pirkinik, a village of Sivas, indicated the existence of some property problems. According to this letter, forty Armenians returned to Pirkinik; however, the local government in the Sivas Province did not restore their lands and houses. As a result, the Ministry of Interior sent a document to the Sivas Province on 19 January 1919 and demanded the investigation of this situation quickly. It stated that if there were occupied houses and lands by Muslims they should be restored to their original owners.161

161 BOA. DH. KMS, 49-2/15-1, BOA.DH. KMS, 49-2/15-2.

ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives, Istanbul, Turkey (BOA) DH. KMS, 49-2/15-1; DH. KMS, 49-2/15-2;

Pirkinik Caravan Owners

Village World, a reminiscence of life in an Armenian Turkish village before 1915, was written by Vahan Hambartsumian. It was translated into English in 2001. Hambartsumian says:

"The entire export and import business of Sebastia was done by the Armenian caravan owners of Prknik and Ghavraz. For days and weeks these caravan owners would overnight in dirty inns during their travels between Sebastia and Samson"

Pirkinik - Çayboyu

Today Pirkinik is called Çayboyu.

To see more images of the village please go to Cayboyu (Pirkinik) village a flickr page compiled by Jelle Verheij.

One of Jelle Verheij's images contains a stone marker inscribed in Armenian and dated 1861. Can anyone translate it?

Sivas - Pirkinik koyundeki Ermeniler. Yil: 1903 - The Armenians in the village of Pirkinik. Year: 1903 (Courtesy of Armen Chakerian January 2017)

The History of the Village of Perkenik (Pakradunik) Fr. Ephrem Boghossian C. M. Vd (Mechitharist of Vienna, Austria) Translation by Joe Topalian

Chapter 18, Distinguished Personalities of Perkenik

Note: In this translation of the History of Perkinik, Daniel Varoujan's family name is spelt Chebookkerian, not Tchiboukkearian.

Lucy Arevian/Hagopian Sivas
Other Arevian/Hagopians Other Azarians
Armenian Ancestors The Genocide
Images of Armenian Life in Turkey

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This page was created in May 2008: Latest update, August 2019